Intraductal papilloma of ectopic breast tissue in axillary lymph node of a patient with a previous intraductal papilloma of ipsilateral breast: a case report and review of the literature
© Dzodic et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
Received: 27 January 2010
Accepted: 12 March 2010
Published: 12 March 2010
The presence of ectopic breast tissue in axillary lymph nodes (ALN) is a benign condition that must be differentiated from primary or metastatic carcinoma. Here we report a patient who underwent excision of enlarged ALN 10 years after she had received surgical treatment of ipsilateral breast for an intracystic intraductal papilloma (IDP). Histological examination of the removed ALN revealed that the proliferative lesion consisted of papillary and tubular structures lined by luminal cuboidal cells and a distinct outer layer of myoepithelial cells resembling IDP of the breast. Immunostaining with a set of immunohistochemical markers including AE/AE3, alpha-smooth muscle actin and p63 in combination with estrogen and progesterone receptors confirmed the diagnosis of ectopic IDP.
This case shows that even though benign proliferative change in ectopic breast tissue is an extremely rare phenomenon, this possibility should be taken into account for correct diagnosis.
Metastasis of breast cancer is most frequently found in axillary lymph nodes (ALN) . In order to avoid overtreatment of patients, various benign lesions must be clearly differentiated from malignancy. Among the benign conditions, the presence of ectopic breast tissue (EBT) due to embryological displacement within ALN is an uncommon but well-recognized phenomenon . Usually, the nodal EBT inclusion presents with a single or arranged in small clusters normal glandular structures sometimes associated with cystic changes. The presence of a benign proliferative lesion arising in ectopic duct epithelium is exceptionally rare . In this report we present a case intraductal papilloma (IDP) in ALN of a patient who had been treated for IDP of the breast 10 years before.
The phenomenon of intranodal glandular inclusions in ALN attracts the attention of breast surgeons and pathologists since their presence may be mistaken for primary or metastatic carcinoma. At least several reasons for ALN enlargement through the accumulation of non-lymphoid tissue are known. These are the presence of nonneoplastic EBT, primary malignant or (rarely) benign EBT tumor, metastatic disease from distant primary sites of which the breast is the most probable, and previous surgical manipulations, principally on the breast, which may lead to the lymphatic dissemination of normal and/or tumor tissue. Of note, iatrogenic breast tissue inclusions in ALN, especially benign, usually remain microscopic [4–8]. Here we described a case of macroscopic, palpable IDP in ALN of a patient previously treated for IDP of ipsilateral breast. The neoplastic tissues found in ALN were ER- and PR-positive and featured a double layer of epithelial and myoepithelial cells indicating their mammary origin and the benign nature .
To the best of our knowledge, to date there are only two reports of IDP in ALN. The first described, without essential histological details, a case resembling papilloma of the breast in ALN . The second provided a thorough analysis of a benign heterotopic papilloma in the sentinel node . Based on extensive histological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings, the authors proposed that nodal neoplasm could arose from a benign implant of breast papilloma which was removed at mastectomy after several diagnostic fine-needle aspiration biopsies and surgical manipulations, or it might have developed de novo from the ectopic breast inclusion of the lymph node.
In the case that we described, we also could not unambiguously distinguish whether nodal IDP developed as a result of tissue dissemination due to the previous breast surgery or from EBT. Nevertheless, we are rather inclined towards the latter since both IDP and normal duct-like structures in lymphoid tissue outside the major lesion were observed (Figure 2). Their presence may be suggestive of preexisting EBT, some parts of which underwent benign neoplastic change. Whatever the cause, history of previous breast surgery may provide important information for enlarged ALN diagnosis.
The case presented here provides additional evidence that EBT can undergo proliferative changes in ALN which may lead to clinical suspicion for cancer. These changes, however, may not necessarily be malignant as this case shows, and surgeons and pathologists need to be aware of this rare but possible scenario. Distinctive morphological features such as two-cell pattern and a set of highly informative immunohistochemical markers including AE/AE3, alpha-smooth muscle actin and p63 in combination with ER and PR enable reliable diagnosis of ectopic IDP allowing to avoid overtreatment and improving patient's quality of life.
The presence of ectopic breast tissue in axillary lymph nodes (ALN) is a benign condition that must be differentiated from primary or metastatic carcinoma. Here we report a patient who underwent excision of enlarged ALN 10 years after she had received surgical treatment of ipsilateral breast for an intracystic intraductal papilloma (IDP). This case and the review of similar cases presented in the literature show that even though benign proliferative change in ectopic breast tissue is an extremely rare phenomenon, the possibility of such disease should be taken into account for correct diagnosis.
- Turner DR, Millis RR: Breast tissue inclusions in axillary lymph nodes. Histopathology. 1980, 4: 631-636. 10.1111/j.1365-2559.1980.tb02958.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Edlow WD, Carter D: Heterotopic epithelium in axillary lymph nodes. Am J Clin Patho. 1972, 59: 666-673.Google Scholar
- Rosen PP: Rosen's breast pathology. 2001, Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2Google Scholar
- Carter BA, Jensen AR, Simpson FJ, Page DL: Benign transport of breast epithelium into axillary lymph nodes after biopsy. Am J Clin Pathol. 2000, 113: 259-265. 10.1309/7EF8-F1W7-YVNT-H8H5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Douglas-Jones AG, Verghese A: Diagnostic difficulty arising from displaced epithelium after core biopsy in intracystic papillary lesions of the breast. J Clin Pathol. 2002, 55: 780-783. 10.1136/jcp.55.10.780.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nagi C, Bleiweiss I, Jaffer S: Epithelial displacement in breastlesions: a papillary phenomenon. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2005, 129: 1465-1469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ganaraj A, Petrek JA: Diagnosis and treatment of cancer arising in ectopic breast tissue. Clin Rev. 2002, 58: 566-570.Google Scholar
- Maiorano E, Mazzarol MG, Pruneri G, Mastropasqua MG, Zurrida S, Orvieto E, Viale G: Ectopic breast tissue as a possible cause of false-positive axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy. Am J Surg Pathol. 2003, 27: 513-518. 10.1097/00000478-200304000-00012.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peng Y, Ashfaq R, Ewing G, Leitch AM, Molberg KH: False-positive sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients caused by benign glandular inclusions: report of three cases and review of the literature. Am J Clin Pathol. 2008, 130: 21-27. 10.1309/JVB8QFQNW5HBN7UJ.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McDiwitt RW, Stewaed FW, Berg JW, eds: Tumors of the breast. Atlas of tumor pathology, Second ser., Fasc. 2. 1968, Washington DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology
- Ichihara S, Ikeda T, Kimura K, Hanatate F, Yamada F, Hasegawa M, Moritami S, Yatabe Y: Coincidence of Mammary and Sentinel Lymph Node Papilloma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008, 32: 784-782. 10.1097/PAS.0b013e31815c6c9d.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.