Malignant mammary tumor in female dogs: environmental contaminants
© Andrade et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
Received: 8 October 2009
Accepted: 30 June 2010
Published: 30 June 2010
Mammary tumors of female dogs have greatly increased in recent years, thus demanding rapid diagnosis and effective treatment in order to determine the animal survival. There is considerable scientific interest in the possible role of environmental contaminants in the etiology of mammary tumors, specifically in relation to synthetic chemical substances released into the environment to which living beings are either directly or indirectly exposed. In this study, the presence of pyrethroid insecticide was observed in adjacent adipose tissue of canine mammary tumor. High Precision Liquid Chromatography - HPLC was adapted to detect and identify environmental contaminants in adipose tissue adjacent to malignant mammary tumor in nine female dogs, without predilection for breed or age. After surgery, masses were carefully examined for malignant neoplastic lesions. Five grams of adipose tissue adjacent to the tumor were collected to detect of environmental contaminants. The identified pyrethroids were allethrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and tetramethrin, with a contamination level of 33.3%. Histopathology demonstrated six female dogs (66.7%) as having complex carcinoma and three (33.3%) with simple carcinoma. From these tumors, seven (77.8%) presented aggressiveness degree III and two (22.2%) degree I. Five tumors were positive for estrogen receptors in immunohistochemical analysis. The contamination level was observed in more aggressive tumors. This was the first report in which the level of environmental contaminants could be detected in adipose tissue of female dogs with malignant mammary tumor, by HPLC. Results suggest the possible involvement of pyrethroid in the canine mammary tumor carcinogenesis. Hence, the dog may be used as a sentinel animal for human breast cancer, since human beings share the same environment and basically have the same eating habits.
Currently, mammary tumors represent 50% of all neoplasms that afflict female dogs [1, 2], and from these tumors 41 to 53% are of malignant character [3–5]. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as biological behavior of such tumors in female dogs are similar to breast carcinomas in women, for this reason female dogs present an excellent comparative model to understand various aspects of carcinogenesis in both species . It is believed that mammary neoplasias may occur as a result of complex interactions of distinct factors; however the exact cause is still under research. Through this dynamic process, the mammary tumor can be influenced by internal host factors such as genetics and external factors, including environmental contamination, that can enable or reduce the individual response [7–9]. The pyrethroids are among environmental contaminants the ones whose use has exponentially grown in recent years . They are used to control pests in agriculture, ranching and domestic animals. The overspread use of this contaminant is associated with its efficiency in pest control and its relatively short half-life [11–13]. In humans and other animals, pyrethroids are readily absorbed cutaneously and also in the digestive and respiratory tracts. Once absorbed they are distributed to various tissues, but they are concentrated especially in the adipose tissue. International Agency for Research Cancer (IARC) includes agrotoxins, especially deltamethrin and cypermethrin in group 3 of risk level, that is, non-conclusive carcinogenic for humans, while the World Health Organization (WHO) classifies deltamethrin as a moderately dangerous insecticide [14, 15]. Considering that this research line is still not used in regular basis for the veterinary medicine, the present study aimed to detect and identify levels of pyrethroid insecticides in adipose tissue adjacent to malignant mammary tumor in female dogs by the HPLC method and correlate these contaminants with the aggressiveness degree of the neoplasias.
Material and Methods
Veterinary and Human histopathological classification of Malignant mammary tumor in female dogs showing their malignity, positive immunemarking for estrogen receptors, and pyrethroid identification with their respective concentration levels in the analyzed samples
Classification - Carcinoma
It is very little the number of studies connecting steroid hormone receptors and mammary tumors in female dogs. However, some human and canine carcinogenic hormone aspects seem to be similar. Toxicological and Epidemiological studies have shown that steroid hormones and synthetic derived trigger the development of mammary gland, suggesting that they may play an important role in the canine mammary tumor pathogenesis .
Epidemiological studies and tests on rodents have demonstrated the influence of environmental contaminants on neoplasia development, including breast cancer [10, 25, 26]. Garey et al, (1998)  emphasized that pyrethroids can induce a breakdown in the homeostasis of hormones such as estrogens and indirectly influence cell proliferation or apoptosis, either increasing or diminishing them in mammary epithelial cells, thereby triggering the neoplastic process. Results obtained in the present study detected the presence of 33.3% of pyrethroid pesticides in adipose tissue of female dogs with mammary carcinoma.
In order to improve results, and collection of data, our group is still researching such environmental contamination, increasing the number of samples as well as including samples from control animals.
We acknowledge CAPES and FAPESP (2008/57.309-5) for the financial support.
- Daleck CR, Franceschini PH, Alessi AC, Santana AE, Martins MIM: Aspectos clínico e cirúrgico do tumor mamário canino. Ciência Rural. 1998, 28: 95-100. 10.1590/S0103-84781998000100016.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Oliveira LO, Oliveira RT, Loretti A, Rodrigues R, Driemeier D: Aspectos epidemiológicos da neoplasia mamária canina. Act Sci Vet. 2003, 31: 105-110.Google Scholar
- Fonseca CS, Daleck CR: Neoplasias mamárias em cadelas: influência hormonal e efeitos da ovariohisterectomia como terapia adjuvante. Ciência Rural. 2000, 30: 731-735. 10.1590/S0103-84782000000400030.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gilbertson SR, Kurzman ID, Zachrau RE, Hurvitz AI, Black MM: Canine mammary epithelial neoplasms: biological implications of morphological characteristics assessed in 232 dogs. Vet Pathology. 1983, 20: 127-142.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sorenmo K: An update on canine mammary gland tumors. ACVIM Forum 16. 1998, 387-388. ProceedingsGoogle Scholar
- Peleteiro MC: Tumores mamários na cadela e na gata. Revista Portuguesa de Ciências Veterinárias. 1994, 89: 10-29.Google Scholar
- Nerurkar VR, Chitale AR, Jalnapurkar BV, Naik SN, Lalitha VS: Comparative pathology off canine mammary tumors. J Comp Pathology. 1989, 101: 88-397.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- O'Brien DJ: Spatial and temporal comparison of selected cancers in dogs and humans. Prev Vet Med. 2000, Michigan, USA, 47: 187-204. 10.1016/S0167-5877(00)00168-9. 1964-1994Google Scholar
- Schneider R, Dorn CR, Taylor DON: Factors influencing canine mammary cancer development and postsurgical survival. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1969, 43: 1249-61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA): Estimativa para 2005 da incidência e mortalidade por câncer no Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. 2006, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
- Goulart SM, Queiroz MELR, Neves AA, Queiroz JH, Alves IC: Anais da 27° Reunião Anual da SBQ e 26° Congresso Latino Americano de Química. Salvador. 2004Google Scholar
- Organización Mundial de la Salud: Resistencia de vectores y reservorios de enfermedades a los plaguicidas: Comité de expertos en Insecticidas. 22° Informe, WHO Serie n.° 585. 1976, Ginebra: WHOGoogle Scholar
- Wright JW: The WHO program for the evaluation and testing of new insecticides. Bull Wld Hith Org. 1971, 44: 11-2.Google Scholar
- International Agency For Research Cancer - IARC: Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity to humans. IARC. 1987, Lyon, (2005), [http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol53/mono53-10.pdf]Google Scholar
- Environmental Protection Agency: Pyrethrins: Report of the Cancer Assessment Review Committee. Third Evaluation. EPA. 2004, [http://www.cepis.ops-oms.org/bvsacd/cd49/pesticide.pdf]Google Scholar
- Bissacot DZ, Vassilieff I: HPLC determination of flumethrin, deltamethrin cypermethrin and cyhalothrin residues in milk and blood of lactating dairy cows. Jour Anal Toxic. 21: 397-402. 199
- Misdorp W, Else RW, Hellman E, Lipscomb TP: Histological classification of mammary tumors of the dog and the cat. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. 1999, Washington, 7: 58-Google Scholar
- Rosen PP, Oberman HA: Tumors of mammary gland. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. 1993, Washington, p390-Google Scholar
- Schmitt FC, Bento MJ, Amendoeira I: Estimation of estrogen receptor content in fine-needle aspirates from breast cancer using the monoclonal antibody 1D5 and microwave oven processing: correlation with paraffin embedded and frozen sections determinations. Diagn Cytopathol. 1995, 13: 347-351. 10.1002/dc.2840130417.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rutterman GR, Misdorp W: Hormonal background of canine and feline mammary tumors. J Reprod Fert Suppl. 1993, 47: 483-487.Google Scholar
- Donney I, Rauis J, Wouters-Ballman P, Devleeschouwer N, Leclerq G, Verteegen JP: Receptors for estrogen, progesterone and epidermal growth factors in normal and timorous canine mammary tissue. J Reprod Fert, Suppl. 1993, 47: 501-512.Google Scholar
- Carreño MSR, Peixoto S, Giglio A: Reposição hormonal e câncer de mama. Rev Soc Bras Canc. 1999, 7: 41-50.Google Scholar
- Henderson BE, Feigelson HS: Hormonal carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2000, 21: 427-433. 10.1093/carcin/21.3.427.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Silva AE, Serakides R, Cassali GD: Carcinogênese hormonal e neoplasias hormônio-dependentes. Ciência Rural. 2004, 34: 625-633.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Amorim LMFA, Rossini A, Mendona GAS, Lotsch PF, Simo TA, Gallo CVA, Pinto LFR: CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in Brazilian women. Cancer Lett. 2002, 181: 179-186. 10.1016/S0304-3835(02)00058-7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Environmental Protection Agency - EPA: Health Effect Division. Office of Pesticide Programs. Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential. Informative. 2006, 49-Google Scholar
- Garey J, Wolff M: Estrogenic and antiprogestagenic activities of pyrethroid insecticides. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998, 251: 855-859. 10.1006/bbrc.1998.9569.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.