Volume 8 Supplement 1
Automated segmentation of blood cells in Giemsa stained digitized thin blood films
© Walliander et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Published: 30 September 2013
Assessment of erythrocytes and leucocytes in thin blood films can be used as an inexpensive diagnostic aid in a series of disease states, e.g. infections, anemia and hematological malignancies. Manual counting of cells is still considered the gold standard for example to establish the level of parasitemia in malaria. However, manual cell counting is time consuming and subject to variability . We here propose an image analysis method that is a combination of adaptive histogram thresholds and morphologic characteristics for the segmentation of red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs) in digitized thin blood films. The method is implemented on a virtual microscopy platform, the Webmicroscope .
Ten Giemsa stained thin blood films were digitized with a microscopy slide scanner (Axio Imager Z2, Carl Zeiss MicroImaging, Jena controlled by Metafer software, MetaSystems, Altlussheim) using a 63x objective with a numerical aperture (NA) of 1.4 (Plan-Apochmat, Carl Zeiss, Jena) and oil immersion. Image acquisition was performed with a monochrome CCD camera with a 1360x1024 pixel sensor and a pixel size of 6.45 µm (CoolCube 1, MetaSystems, Altlussheim), a 1.0 camera adapter and illumination with an RGB illuminator (MetaLED Z, red 619 nanometer, green 515 nanometer, blue 465 nanometer, MetaSystems, Altlussheim). The pixel size in the digital images was approximately 0.10µm and the original TIFF images were converted into a wavelet format (Enhanced Compression Wavelet, ERDAS/Intergraph, Norcross, GA) and transferred to a virtual microscopy image server (http://fimm.webmicroscope.net/Research/Momic/tp2012) . Approximately five-hundred (473 – 505) fields of view from each blood film sample were captured and stored in the database. Five of the samples were infected with Plasmodium falciparum and five were non-infected control samples.
As a preprocessing step for each thin blood film sample, the green channel was selected from the original RGB image  and smoothed by applying a median filter 3X3 to reduce the' salt and pepper' noise . The green channel is extracted using a color deconvolution between the original image and a vector [0,1,0].
Adaptive histogram thresholds
Let each pixel of the preprocessed image have intensity levels in [0, 1, 2, …, L-1] with L= 256. The number of pixels with intensity level i is denoted by n i , ∀ i=0, 1, 2,…, L-1, where is the total amount of pixels. We defined the histogram distribution as p(i) = n i /N, p(i) ≥0, where .
There are two local maxima located at m 1 and m 2 , where m 2 <m 1 and P = p(m 2 ) <p(m 1 ) = Q.
where = gray level Image.
Using the image histogram and based on its bimodal shape, two important thresholds were extracted (Fig. 2). The first threshold (B) defines a binary separation between the image background and foreground. From the image foreground, all objects with roundness bigger than 0.6 were selected and the area of each of the objects was measured. The mean diameter to be 7.52µm and standard deviation of 0.06µm for the whole set of objects was calculated. Finally, only the subset of objects with an area equal to m+/-σ (3848+/-688 pixels) was chosen and defined as RoundCells. From this set of round objects of similar size, the average diameter was calculated and used to define a representative red blood cell, designated as AvgRBC (diameter ~7µm) and to establish limit diameters for WBCs (~7-21 µm) and platelets (~2-3µm).
The second threshold (H), defines the heavily stained objects in the foreground (i.e. WBC, platelets, artifacts and debris). The heavily stained objects larger than AvgRBC are the FoundWBCs.
Detection of circular shapes by Hough transform
Hough transform is calculated on gray level images that contain only the regions of interest while the remaining is set to zero. The region of interest is composed by foreground without RoundCells, FoundWBCs and debris. The maximization of Hough transform for a radius interval is performed, where r = radius (AvgRBC). The result is a set of accumulations of hits (votes). The accumulations are concentrated around the centers of the circular shapes. Hough transform detected cells are filtered by selecting the pixel with the maximum vote and deleting all the pixels with less than 20% of the votes. Thus the selection of nearly circular shapes is ensured. Finally, a morphological opening is performed to discard accumulations with less than 50 pixels. The remaining objects are centers of FoundCells.
After subtracting the RoundCells and the heavily stained objects from the original image, to compensate for the holes left from the subtraction of the platelets, debris and parasites, a morphologic filling was performed. By using Hough transform, circular shapes were detected in the grayscale image and designated as FoundCells, resolving the center positions of the nearly circular objects. A second representative red blood cell AvgRBC2 was defined from the area of FoundCells.
After subtracting the RoundCells, the FoundWBCs and the FoundCells, the remaining image contains fragments of RBCs and deformed RBCs which Hough transform was not able to define as circular shapes. The total area covered by these objects, named ApproxCells was divided by the area of AvgRBC2 which is estimation for the number of cells that still remain without being counted #ApproxCells.
Results and discussion
Results comparing manual and automated cell counting
Red Blood Cells
White Blood Cells
Results of automated red blood cell counting on whole slides of thin blood film
AvgRBC diameter μm
The segmentation of RBCs and WBCs is an easy task for a human observer. Humans have the ability of distinguishing large number of colors, shades and hues, also estimating shapes and size similarities while referring to prior knowledge, making global and local comparisons simultaneously. However, performing large scale quantification is a time consuming and tedious task.
We present an unsupervised tool for separating the foreground from the background in Giemsa stained thin blood films and an automated cell counter for RBCs and WBCs. The segmentation of blood cells in thin blood films can be used as a pre-processing step to specify the regions of interest for a secondary algorithm, e.g. the detection of malaria parasites in RBCs, morphological analysis of RBCs and WBCs and follow-up during treatment of hematological malignancies or measurement of response to chemotherapy.
List of abbreviations
Red blood cell
White blood cell
Number of cells in
The authors wish to thank Elisabet Tyyni for sample preparation and analysis. The study was kindly supported by the national Biomedinfra and Biocenter Finland projects.
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