Dysplastic intestinal-type metaplasia of appendiceal endometriosis: a mimic of low grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm
© Mitchell et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 27 October 2013
Accepted: 21 December 2013
Published: 21 February 2014
We report an example of dysplastic intestinal-type metaplasia involving endometriosis of the appendix in a 45 year old woman. One other example of this phenomenon has been reported. As it occurs within the muscular wall of the appendix, confusion with low grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) may occur. Evidence supporting the metaplastic nature of the intestinal epithelium is offered. As the initial pathological diagnosis was of invasive cancer with perforation of the appendix treatment consisted of peritonectomy and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC).
The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1068246472111756.
KeywordsAppendix Endometriosis Intestinal Metaplasia Dysplasia
Endometriosis of the appendix may be an incidental finding or the cause of appendicitis, intussusception or perforation . Various types of metaplasia may involve the epithelial component of endometriosis  including intestinal-type. The latter has been described in two cases of appendiceal endometriosis to date, one associated with focal dysplasia [3, 4]. We describe a case of endometriosis of the appendix with dysplastic intestinal-type epithelium presenting as a mucocele with acute appendicitis and perforation. The differential diagnosis is with low grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN). As the initial pathologic diagnosis was of “infiltrating low-grade adenocarcinoma colonizing endometriosis” the patient was treated with peritonectomy and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC).
A 45 year old woman underwent surgery at another hospital following a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The appendix appeared enlarged and perforated. Multiple “peritoneal mucinous implants” were observed in the right pelvis. Following a pathologic diagnosis of “invasive low-grade carcinoma of the appendix colonizing appendicial endometriosis”, the patient was referred to our hospital for consideration of second look laparotomy and HIPEC. An extensive evaluation revealed no evidence of metastatic disease.
Without recourse to pathological review of the appendectomy specimen, second look laparotomy was performed exactly one year later. There was no macroscopic evidence of neoplasia, but mucin was seen localized to the right peritoneal surface. Free intrabdominal mucin was absent. Right hemicolectomy, resection of two segments of small intestine, omentectomy, bilateral ovariectomy, and peritoneal resections were carried out. HIPEC (Oxaliplatin 300 mg/m2) was administered. Pathologic examination showed foci of endometriosis on the ileal surface of the right hemicolectomy specimen, the left Fallopian tube and in one of the fragments of peritoneum. The mucin was acellular. Both ovaries had functional cysts.
The patient’s clinical course has been uneventful after eighteen months.
Material and methods
The haematoxylin-phloxin-saffron (HPS) stained sections of the appendectomy specimen from the referring hospital were reviewed. In turn, 4- micron thick recuts of all the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were stained with HPS in our laboratory. Unstained sections from all blocks were submitted for histochemical and immunohistochemical studies: periodic acid-Schiff stain with diastase (PAS-D) and without (PAS), and monoclonal antibodies directed against pancytokeratin AE/AE3, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 20, CD10, estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors, and Ki-67 (MIB-1).
The findings were interpreted as acute appendicitis with perforation and background endometriosis, the latter with foci of metaplastic intestinal-type epithelium with occasional low grade dysplasia.
Endometriosis has been described in numerous extra-pelvic sites including the abdominal wall, pleura, pericardium, muscle, nerve  and bronchus . Confusing clinical presentations may result. As one example, within the gynecologic tract co-existence of an ovarian leiomyoma with an endometriotic cyst resulted in appendicitis-like symptoms and urgent laparotomy .
Endometriosis may involve the gastrointestinal tract from the small intestine to the rectosigmoid colon. The latter is the most common site, followed, in order, by the proximal colon, small intestine, the appendix and cecum. Ileocolic intussusception due to cecal endometriosis has been documented .
Microscopic foci of endometriosis are encountered in appendices removed for appendicitis or those included in colectomy specimens, and are clinically silent. Conversely, endometriosis may present as acute or chronic appendicitis, with the latter occasionally causing a mucocele. Other presentations of appendicial endometriosis include a mass lesion, perforation during pregnancy (most commonly in the first two trimesters and when the endometriosis is transmural), and intussusception of the appendix .
Endometriosis can display metaplastic changes. In the ovary 12-68% of endometriosis lesions show metaplasia in the form of ciliated, eosinophilic, hobnail, squamous or mucinous change, with endocervical-type metaplasia encountered more commonly than intestinal-type . Although in a review of 44 cases of endometriosis involving the intestinal tract no examples of intestinal-type metaplasia were found , a recent report documents intestinal epithelium “colonizing” endometriosis of the cecum of a 55 year-old woman who had previously undergone appendectomy .
One other case of dysplastic intestinal-type metaplasia involving appendicial endometriosis has been reported . A 39 year-old woman with severe endometriosis underwent uterine myomectomy as well as appendectomy for an incidental 1.6 cm nodule of the distal appendix. Microscopic examination showed endometriosis extending from the serosa to the mucosa of the appendix. Foci of intestinal-type metaplasia, including Paneth cells, were found within the endometriosis with one area showing cytologic atypia consistant with dysplasia. Regarding histogenesis, the authors favored metaplasia of the endometriosis, as opposed to “colonization” by overlying luminal epithelium, citing the presence of ER-positive mucinous cells, the presence of ciliated mucinous cells (not seen in normal intestinal epithelium), absence of direct communication between endometriotic and native appendiceal glands, and the presence of “transitional epithelium”.
Similarly, we believe our case represents intestinal metaplasia rather than colonization, as: 1) no connection between the overlying native epithelium and the foci of endometriosis was found, 2) multiple foci of direct transition between endometriotic epithelium and intestinal-type epithelium were present, 3) ER-positive mucinous cells at sites of transition from endometriotic to mucinous epithelium were identified, and 4) the known potential of endometrium to undergo intestinal metaplasia [10, 11].
The differential diagnosis in the present case is with low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN). LAMN is characterized by invasive intestinal-type epithelium with abundant mucin production, minimal architectural complexity and low-grade cytologic atypia . Two features of the present case rule out LAMN: absence of invasive intestinal epithelium and absence of a primary lesion (adenoma or carcinoma in situ) of the appendicial epithelium. Furthermore, there is clinical support against LAMN as at second-look surgery one year following resection of the perforated appendix there was absence of both recurrent neoplasia and diffuse peritoneal mucin.
The decision to perform peritonectomy and HIPEC was based on an initial pathological diagnosis of invasive cancer. Given the uniqueness of our case it is impossible to know what further treatment, if any, would have been warranted had the correct diagnosis initially been made. We therefore suggest that in any appendectomy specimen with endometriosis and suspicion of neoplasia that the possibility of intestinal metaplasia be considered in the differential diagnosis.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for the publication of this report and any accompanying images.
- Yantiss RK, Clement PB, Young RH: Endometriosis of the intestinal tract: a study of 44 cases of a disease that may cause diverse challenges in clinical and pathologic evaluation. Am J Surg Pathol. 2001, 25: 513-524.Google Scholar
- Clement PB: The pathology of endometriosis: a survey of the many faces of a common disease emphasizing diagnostic pitfalls and unusual and newly appreciated aspects. Adv Anat Pathol. 2007, 14: 241-260. 10.1097/PAP.0b013e3180ca7d7b.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mai KT, Burns BF: Development of dysplastic mucinous epithelium from endometriosis of the appendix. Histopathology. 1999, 35 (4): 368-372. 10.1046/j.1365-2559.1999.00732.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Libbrecht L, Snauwaert C, De Vos M, et al.: Intestinal metaplasia and colonization of endometriosis in a case of an appendiceal mucinous neoplasm. Virchows Arch. 2012, 461: 227-229. 10.1007/s00428-012-1264-5.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Machairiotis N, Stylianaki A, Dryllis G, et al.: Extrapelvic endometriosis: a rare entity or an under-diagnosed condition?. Diagn Pathol. 2013, 8 (1): 194-10.1186/1746-1596-8-194.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yu JH, Lin XY, Wang L, et al.: Endobronchial endometriosis presenting as central-type lung cancer: a case report. Diagn Pathol. 2013, 8: 53-10.1186/1746-1596-8-53. doi:10.1186/1746-1596-8-53PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tomas D, Lenicek T, Tuckar N, et al.: Primary ovarian leiomyoma associated with endometriotic cyst presenting with symptoms of acute appendicitis: a case report. Diagn Pathol. 2009, 4: 25-10.1186/1746-1596-4-25. doi:10.1186/1746-1596-4-25PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Emmanuel R, Léa M, Claude P, et al.: Ileocolic intussusception due to a cecal endometriosis: case report and review of literature. Diagn Pathol. 2012, 7: 62-10.1186/1746-1596-7-62. doi:10.1186/1746-1596-7-62PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tipps AM, Weidner N: Colonization of intestinal endometriosis by benign colonic mucosa: a pattern potentially misdiagnosed as invasive mucinous carcinoma. Int J Surg Pathol. 2011, 19 (2): 259-262. 10.1177/1066896910388644.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nicolae A, Goyenaga P, McCluggage WG, et al.: Endometrial intestinal metaplasia: a report of two cases, including one associated with cervical intestinal and pyloric metaplasia. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2011, 30: 492-496. 10.1097/PGP.0b013e318211d586.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wells M, Tiltman A: Intestinal metaplasia of the endometrium. Histopathology. 1989, 15: 431-433. 10.1111/j.1365-2559.1989.tb01598.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Misdraji JM, Yantiss RK, Graeme-Cook FM, et al.: Appendicial mucinous neoplasms: a clinicopathologic analysis of 107 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2003, 27: 1089-1103. 10.1097/00000478-200308000-00006.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.