Operative versus conservative treatment for patellar dislocation: a meta-analysis of 7 randomized controlled trials
© Cheng et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 22 February 2014
Accepted: 9 March 2014
Published: 18 March 2014
Patellofemoral pathology is common, and patellofemoral dislocation mainly affects adolescents and young adults. We conducted a meta-analysis exclusively of RCTs to compare the clinical outcomes of patellar dislocation patients managed operatively versus non-operatively.
After systematic review of electronic databases and websites, a total of 7 RCTs reporting data on 402 subjects were included. The methodological quality of the literature was assessed using the PEDro critical appraisal tool. Mean differences (MDs) and risk ratio (RR) were calculated for the pooled effects. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 test.
Data synthesis showed a lower rate of recurrent patellar dislocation post-treatment in patients managed operatively compared to non-operatively (P = 0.01).
The results suggest a difference in outcomes between the treatment strategies. However the limited number of studies and high risk of inherent bias indicate that future studies involving more patients in better-designed randomized controlled trials will be required.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8011948721221355.
Patellofemoral pathology is one of the most common conditions in the clinical work of the general orthopedist, with patellofemoral dislocation mainly affecting adolescents and young adults [1, 2]. Patellar dislocation accounts for 2–3% of all knee lesions and is the second most common cause of traumatic haemarthrosis of the knee [3, 4]. There are various anatomical factors which predispose individuals to patellar dislocation, such as trochlear dysplasia, abnormal extensor mechanism alignment, patella alta, hypermobility syndrome, a tight lateral retinaculum, hypoplasia of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO), occurrence in youth, family history, and bilateral symptoms [5–7].
Proper treatment is essential in order to minimize sequelae such as recurrent dislocation, painful subluxation, and osteoarthritis . Traditionally, patients have been managed non-operatively following a first time dislocation, except when associated patellar displacement or osteochondral fractures of the lateral femoral condyle are present [7, 9–11]. This non-operative strategy often consists of a period of immobilization in a splint or cast, followed by physiotherapy, principally of the quadriceps complex [12–14]. However, the literature has suggested that the recurring instability rate is more than 50% after non-operative treatment and thus some authors have advocated that surgical intervention such as repair or reconstruction of the medial retinaculum and medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), medialisation of the tibial tubercle, and lateral release procedures should be performed [15–22].
To date, there have been seven prospective randomized trials and one meta-analysis comparing conservative and operative treatment after patellar dislocation. The meta-analysis including 11 publications (only five randomized controlled trials (RCTs)) indicated lower redislocation rates, but higher rates of patellofemoral osteoarthritis after operative treatment . The author of that analysis considered that this finding should be interpreted with great caution, since the inclusion of too many non-RCTs is the weakness of that study. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a meta-analysis including only RCTs to compare the clinical outcomes of patients managed operatively compared to non-operatively following a patellar dislocation.
Study sources and searches
The literature search was conducted in Medline, PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library Central register of controlled trials to identify relevant published English articles from January 1966 to December 2013. The search key words and subject terms used were “patellar dislocation” “patella” “patellar subluxation” and “patellar instability”. Relevant articles in reference lists of published articles were also searched.
Study selection and data extraction
All studies that were identified by the literature searches were reviewed and selected according to the following prior criteria: (i) patients with patellar dislocation regardless of age and sex; (ii) RCTs with two groups comparing operation with conservative treatment; and (iii) outcomes of operative or non-operative management of patients. Authors of selected studies were contacted for further information when necessary.
Data was extracted by two independent reviewers. The extracted information included: (i) the first author, year of publication, study type and study duration; (ii) the number and characteristics of subjects; (iii) operative interventions undertaken, non-operative strategies and treatment duration; and (iv) outcomes. The two reviewers reached agreement on selected articles and extracted information and if they disagreed, a third reviewer was invited to resolve the differences. In cases of missing data, or when mean or standard deviation (SD) values were not presented, corresponding authors were contacted to attempt to obtain this data. Once completed, all data were then synthesized into an agreed data extraction table. This formed the basis of the results for data analysis.
Evaluation of methodological quality
Data were extracted by one main researcher and then verified by another researcher. Any discrepancies were resolved by discussion. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale . To minimize selection bias, two investigators rated each study independently and subsequently assigned a score based on the PEDro scale.
The frequency of recurrent patellar dislocation was used as the primary outcome in patients managed operatively compared to non-operatively following a patellar dislocation under investigation. Secondary outcomes under investigation included functional outcomes assessed using the Kujala score , Tegner activity score , pain, frequency of recurrent instability, Hughston visual analog score (VAS) , patient satisfaction, return to functional activities, and frequency of subsequent surgical intervention.
All statistical analyses were performed using Review Manager 5.2. Analysis of the treatment effect was performed when no substantial differences in study populations, interventions or outcome measurements were observed. The chi-squared statistic and the I2 statistic were used to assess heterogeneity. Studies with an I2 statistic of >75% were considered to have a high degree of heterogeneity; studies with an I2 statistic of 50–75% were considered to have a moderate degree of heterogeneity; and studies with an I2 statistic of 25–50% were considered to have a low degree of heterogeneity. Publication bias was not examined due to the small number of studies (< 10) included in each analysis.
A fixed-effect model was initially employed in the analysis, unless significant heterogeneity was observed; a random effects model analysis was used in order to account for the extra uncertainty due to heterogeneity. For continuous outcomes with the same measurement scale, means were computed with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). However, for continuous outcomes with different measurement scales, standardized mean difference (SMD) was calculated. The dichotomous outcomes were presented as a risk ratio (RR) with 95% CIs. A P value lower than 0.05 or a 95% CI that did not contain unity was considered statistically significant. Outcomes were summarized and expressed using a forest plot. Descriptive analysis was used for any individual result which was not available for meta-analysis.
Characteristics of studies included in this meta-analysis
MR or MPFL augmentation, or LR.
3 weeks immobilization in cast or orthosis then thigh muscle exercises
Palmu et al. 2008 ;
MPFL repair and in 32 cases, LR.
3 weeks immobilization in cast or orthosis then thigh muscle exercises.
Christiansen et al. 2008 ;
0–2 weeks orthosis immobilization 0–20° motion. Quadriceps exercises and general physiotherapy
Sillanpää et al. 2008 ;
MR and MPFL repair; R-G procedure; arthroscopic repair of osteochondral fracture
3 weeks orthosis immobilization 0–30° motion. Week 3–6 weeks, 0–90° full motion at 6 weeks. Quadriceps exercises commence immediately
Camanho et al. 2008 ;
3 weeks immobilization then physiotherapy with VMO exercises
Op-3.4; N-Op 3.0
Bitar et al. 2012 ;
MPFL reconstruction using patellar tendon
3 weeks immobilization then physiotherapy with quadriceps exercises
Petri et al. 2012 ;
repair the tear, or lateral release
3 weeks orthosis immobilization 0–30° motion with partial weight-bearing. Week 3–6 weeks, 0–90° motion with progression to pain-adapted full weight-bearing.
The patient characteristics of the included studies
Palmu et al. 2008 ;
Christiansen et al. 2008 ;
Sillanpää et al. 2008 ;
Camanho et al. 2008 ;
Bitar et al. 2012 ;
Petri et al. 2012 ;
Results of pooled analysis
The results of pooled analysis
Risk ratio effect/Mean difference(95%CI)
Frequency of recurrent dislocation
0.73 [0.46, 1.16]
0.70 [0.53, 0.92]
Frequency of recurrent instability/subluxation
0.67 [0.25, 1.80]
0.98 [0.75, 1.28]
Patient satisfaction (excellent/good)
0.84 [0.71, 1.00]
0.84 [0.70, 1.00]
Frequency subsequent surgery required
0.74 [0.15, 3.70]
0.94 [0.53, 1.66]
6.38 [-5.32, 18.08]
9.40 [8.18, 10.61]
-5.68 [-9.49, -1.88]
-5.68 [-9.49, -1.88]
-1.09 [-1.54, -0.63]
-1.02 [-1.19, -0.85]
In this meta-analysis, we summarized findings in the clinical literature on the outcomes of operative versus conservative treatment for patellar dislocation. On the basis of the available evidence, this study demonstrates a higher rate of recurrent patellar dislocation events post-treatment, higher Tegner score and higher Hughston VAS score in patients managed non-operatively compared to patients managed operatively.
All RCTs [2, 7–9, 28–30] suggested that operative treatment of patellar dislocation results in a lower risk of recurrent patellar dislocation compared to non-operative treatment. There were six RCTs in which patients were managed operatively compared to non-operatively following the first patellar dislocation among the seven included RCTs. Therefore, the finding should be interpreted with great caution with reference to recurrent patellar dislocation. In 2011, Smith et al. showed equivalent results in their meta-analysis . They considered that the result should be interpreted with great caution due to statistically significant funnel plot asymmetry. In a study by Palmu et al. , although the rate of recurrent patellar dislocation was higher in patients following non-operative treatment, there was no significant difference in functional assessment. This suggested that these patients were able to perform all their activities of daily living, irrespective of recurrent patellar instability and dislocation events. Therefore, assessment of functional-based outcomes should be paid more attention in future studies.
This study reported that there was a difference in Hughston VAS score when comparing pain between operative and non-operative management strategies. The degree of pain was lower in the non-operative group. However, the finding should be interpreted with great caution because the data involved in this result was extracted from only two RCTs and the Kujala score [2, 7–9, 28–30] correlated better with the subjective result and the recurrence of patellar dislocation than the Hughston VAS score . There was no significant difference in Kujala score between the two treatment groups (MD = 6.38, 95% CI: -5.32 to 18.08, P = 0.29), with a high degree of heterogeneity across the studies (P < 0.00001, I2 = 98%) in this analysis. The reasons for this result may include the following factors. First, the Kujala score is a subjective evaluation method so that there may have been differences between the included RCTs. Second, the inclusion criteria were different for each study included. Third, there was some variability in treatment methods, especially in operative treatment. The seven RCTs reported using a number of different operative interventions including lateral release, medial retinaculum or MPFL repair, or Roux–Goldthwaite procedures.
Only one study was identified which solely assessed the incidence of patellofemoral osteoarthritis between operative and non-operative groups.  This reported that there was no statistically significant difference between patients treated operatively and those treated non-operatively in respect to articular cartilage lesions within the patellofemoral joint. Repeated chondral injury may predispose patients to osteoarthritis [31–33]. Due to the relative scarcity of RCTs assessing the incidence of patellofemoral osteoarthritis in patients managed following patellar dislocation, it will be necessary to observe whether there is a difference in clinical outcomes between patients managed non-operatively and operat'ively.
The results of this review should be interpreted and generalized with caution due to the limited number of the studies and the high risk of bias inherent in the studies. First, it included only a limited number of studies and of subjects. After a careful search, only 7 RCTs were included in the final analysis, giving a total population of 402 subjects. The publication bias was not tested in our analysis in consideration of the low power due to the small number of studies included.
Second, of the seven RCTs, only two used an appropriate concealed allocation method for randomization, and none reported adequate intention-to treat analysis. This might have introduced selection bias. In addition, blinding of outcome assessors was not used in any of the RCTs included, and thus detection bias might have been introduced.
Third, most of the studies did not screen participants for stress and anxiety levels, which might have weakened the evidence of the study. Four, while operative and non-operative interventions were compared in those RCTs included, the majority of studies poorly described the specific management procedures in detail, therefore limiting the ability to replicate these clinical trials. In particular, the non-operative management strategies were poorly described in all RCTs.
Finally, as regards the functional outcome of patients following patellar dislocation, there was no difference in Kujala score between operative and non-operative management strategies with significant heterogeneity. This subjective result was not effectively evaluated.
In future, in order to better evaluate the outcomes of the two treatment strategies, it is suggested to define the population, standardize the interventions prescribed to those patients, and evaluate this area of therapy through a well-designed randomised controlled trial.
The current systematic review with meta-analysis demonstrated a lower rate of recurrent patellar dislocation events post-treatment in patients managed operatively compared to patients managed non-operatively. Due to the limited number of the studies available, the findings of this study should be interpreted with caution. Further RCTs including a larger number of patients and a better-designed controlled trial are desirable in future.
Biao Cheng and Xing Wu are co-first authors.
- Hughston JC: Subluxation of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1968, 50: 1003-1026.PubMed
- Camanho GL, Viegas Ade C, Bitar AC, Demange MK, Hernandez AJ: Conservative versus surgical treatment for repair of the medial patellofemoral ligament in acute dislocations of the patella. Arthroscopy. 2009, 25: 620-625. 10.1016/j.arthro.2008.12.005.PubMedView Article
- Stefancin JJ, Parker RD: First-time traumatic patellar dislocation: a systematic review. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007, 455: 93-101.PubMedView Article
- Arendt EA, Fithian DC, Cohen E: Current concepts of lateral patella dislocation. Clin Sports Med. 2002, 21: 499-519. 10.1016/S0278-5919(02)00031-5.PubMedView Article
- Panagiotopoulos E, Strzelczyk P, Herrmann M, Scuderi G: Cadaveric study on static medial patellar stabilizers: the dynamizing role of the vastus medialis obliquus on medial patellofemoral ligament. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2006, 14: 7-12.PubMedView Article
- Smith TO, Song F, Donell ST, Hing CB: Operative versus non-operative management of patellar dislocation. A meta-analysis. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2011, 19: 988-998.PubMedView Article
- Petri M, Liodakis E, Hofmeister M, Despang FJ, Maier M, Balcarek P, Voigt C, Haasper C, Zeichen J, Stengel D, Krettek C, Frosch KH, Lill H, Jagodzinski M: Operative vs conservative treatment of traumatic patellar dislocation: results of a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2013, 133: 209-213. 10.1007/s00402-012-1639-8.PubMedView Article
- Sillanpaa PJ, Mattila VM, Maenpaa H, Kiuru M, Visuri T, Pihlajamaki H: Treatment with and without initial stabilizing surgery for primary traumatic patellar dislocation. A prospective randomized study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009, 91: 263-273. 10.2106/JBJS.G.01449.PubMedView Article
- Bitar AC, Demange MK, D'Elia CO, Camanho GL: Traumatic patellar dislocation: nonoperative treatment compared with MPFL reconstruction using patellar tendon. Am J Sports Med. 2012, 40: 114-122. 10.1177/0363546511423742.PubMedView Article
- Xu Z, Yu L, Zhang X: Association between the hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis based on 22,475 subjects. Diagn Pathol. 2013, 8: 144-10.1186/1746-1596-8-144.PubMedPubMed CentralView Article
- Cheng H, Qin Y, Fan H, Su P, Zhang X, Zhang H, Zhou G: Overexpression of CARM1 in breast cancer is correlated with poorly characterized clinicopathologic parameters and molecular subtypes. Diagn Pathol. 2013, 8: 129-10.1186/1746-1596-8-129.PubMedPubMed CentralView Article
- Smith TO, Davies L, Chester R, Clark A, Donell ST: Clinical outcomes of rehabilitation for patients following lateral patellar dislocation: a systematic review. Physiotherapy. 2010, 96: 269-281. 10.1016/j.physio.2010.02.006.PubMedView Article
- Wang L, Teng Z, Cai S, Wang D, Zhao X, Yu K: The association between the PPARgamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and nephropathy susceptibility in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis based on 9,176 subjects. Diagn Pathol. 2013, 8: 118-10.1186/1746-1596-8-118.PubMedPubMed CentralView Article
- Dou K, Xu Q, Han X: The association between XPC Lys939Gln gene polymorphism and urinary bladder cancer susceptibility: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diagn Pathol. 2013, 8: 112-10.1186/1746-1596-8-112.PubMedPubMed CentralView Article
- Ahmad CS, Stein BE, Matuz D, Henry JH: Immediate surgical repair of the medial patellar stabilizers for acute patellar dislocation. A review of eight cases. Am J Sports Med. 2000, 28: 804-810.PubMed
- Cash JD, Hughston JC: Treatment of acute patellar dislocation. Am J Sports Med. 1988, 16: 244-249. 10.1177/036354658801600308.PubMedView Article
- Sallay PI, Poggi J, Speer KP, Garrett WE: Acute dislocation of the patella. A correlative pathoanatomic study. Am J Sports Med. 1996, 24: 52-60. 10.1177/036354659602400110.PubMedView Article
- Carney JR, Mologne TS, Muldoon M, Cox JS: Long-term evaluation of the Roux-Elmslie-Trillat procedure for patellar instability: a 26-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med. 2005, 33: 1220-1223. 10.1177/0363546504272686.PubMedView Article
- Fithian DC, Paxton EW, Cohen AB: Indications in the treatment of patellar instability. J Knee Surg. 2004, 17: 47-56.PubMed
- Merican AM, Kondo E, Amis AA: The effect on patellofemoral joint stability of selective cutting of lateral retinacular and capsular structures. J Biomech. 2009, 42: 291-296. 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2008.11.003.PubMedView Article
- Nietosvaara Y, Paukku R, Palmu S, Donell ST: Acute patellar dislocation in children and adolescents. Surgical technique. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009, 91 Suppl 2 Pt 1: 139-145.PubMed
- Sillanpaa P, Mattila VM, Visuri T, Maenpaa H, Pihlajamaki H: Ligament reconstruction versus distal realignment for patellar dislocation. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008, 466: 1475-1484. 10.1007/s11999-008-0207-6.PubMedPubMed CentralView Article
- Maher CG, Sherrington C, Herbert RD, Moseley AM, Elkins M: Reliability of the PEDro scale for rating quality of randomized controlled trials. Phys Ther. 2003, 83: 713-721.PubMed
- Kujala UM, Jaakkola LH, Koskinen SK, Taimela S, Hurme M, Nelimarkka O: Scoring of patellofemoral disorders. Arthroscopy. 1993, 9: 159-163. 10.1016/S0749-8063(05)80366-4.PubMedView Article
- Tegner Y, Lysholm J: Rating systems in the evaluation of knee ligament injuries. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1985, 198: 43-49.PubMed
- Flandry F, Hunt JP, Terry GC, Hughston JC: Analysis of subjective knee complaints using visual analog scales. Am J Sports Med. 1991, 19: 112-118. 10.1177/036354659101900204.PubMedView Article
- Nikku R, Nietosvaara Y, Kallio PE, Aalto K, Michelsson JE: Operative versus closed treatment of primary dislocation of the patella. Similar 2-year results in 125 randomized patients. Acta Orthop Scand. 1997, 68: 419-423. 10.3109/17453679708996254.PubMedView Article
- Nikku R, Nietosvaara Y, Aalto K, Kallio PE: Operative treatment of primary patellar dislocation does not improve medium-term outcome: A 7-year follow-up report and risk analysis of 127 randomized patients. Acta Orthop. 2005, 76: 699-704. 10.1080/17453670510041790.PubMedView Article
- Palmu S, Kallio PE, Donell ST, Helenius I, Nietosvaara Y: Acute patellar dislocation in children and adolescents: a randomized clinical trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008, 90: 463-470. 10.2106/JBJS.G.00072.PubMedView Article
- Christiansen SE, Jakobsen BW, Lund B, Lind M: Isolated repair of the medial patellofemoral ligament in primary dislocation of the patella: a prospective randomized study. Arthroscopy. 2008, 24: 881-887. 10.1016/j.arthro.2008.03.012.PubMedView Article
- Nomura E, Inoue M: Second-look arthroscopy of cartilage changes of the patellofemoral joint, especially the patella, following acute and recurrent patellar dislocation. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2005, 13: 1029-1036. 10.1016/j.joca.2005.07.004.PubMedView Article
- Toupin JM, Lechevallier J: Osteochondral fractures of the external femoral condyle after traumatic patellar dislocation during physical exercise in children. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot. 1997, 83: 540-550.PubMed
- Liu Y, Tang W, Wang J, Xie L, Li T, He Y, Qin X, Li S: Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of S100A4 overexpression in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis. Diagn Pathol. 2013, 8: 181-10.1186/1746-1596-8-181.PubMedPubMed CentralView Article
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.