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Table 3 Detailed outcomes on insulin use and RRs of DR

From: Insulin and risk of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: data from a meta-analysis of seven cohort studies

Subgroups No. of studies Pooled estimate Tests of heterogeneity
   RR 95% CI P value I2(%)
All subjects 7 2.30 1.35-3.93 < 0.001 89.3
Study design      
Prospective study 6 2.38 1.28-4.41 < 0.001 90.9
Retrospective study 1 2.30 1.11-3.43
Geographic location      
Europe 5 1.85 1.12-3.08 < 0.001 80.4
Asia 1 3.43 1.93-6.08
North America 1 4.90 2.63-5.79
Data source      
Population based 5 2.94 2.19-3.94 0.234 28.1
Hospital based 2 1.34 0.65-2.76 0.024 80.5
Follow-up duration      
≥ 5 years 1 3.51 1.59-7.76
< 5 years 6 2.17 1.22-3.85 < 0.001 90.3
Major confounders adjusted      
DM duration      
Yes 3 2.18 0.80-5.93 < 0.001 91.7
No 4 2.53 1.74-3.67 0.115 49.4
HbA1c      
Yes 3 2.88 2.00-4.14 0.454 0
No 4 2.30 1.35-4.14 < 0.001 92.7
  1. RR: relative risk; CI: confidence interval; DM: diabetes mellitus.