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Table 1 The serum levels of DKK-1 according to clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with breast cancer

From: Serum Dickkopf-1 expression level positively correlates with a poor prognosis in breast cancer

   DKK-1 expression  
Variables Cases (n) High Low p value
Age (years)     
<50 59 27 32 0.61
≥ 50 66 36 30  
TNM stage     
I + II 71 26 45 0.009*
III 54 37 17  
Grade     
G1-G2 67 24 43 0.02*
G3 58 39 19  
Histological type     
Ductal 88 49 39 0.11
Others 37 14 23  
Lymph node metastasis     
Yes 46 36 10 0.001*
No 79 27 52  
ER     
Negative 59 33 26 0.09
Positive 66 30 36  
PR     
Negative 68 37 31 0.12
Positive 57 26 31  
HER2     
Negative 36 29 7 0.002*
Positive 89 34 55  
Family history of breast cancer     
Yes 73 41 32 0.07
No 52 22 30  
Radiation therapy     
Yes 34 19 15 0.39
No 91 44 47  
Chemotherapy     
Yes 46 22 24 0.31
No 79 41 38  
Menopausal status     
Yes 48 23 25 0.45
No 77 40 37  
  1. *Statistically significant.
  2. ER = estrogen receptor; PR = progesterone receptor; HER-2 = c-erb B-2.