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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies on the relationship between hyperhomocysyeinemia and risk of diabetic retinopathy

From: Relationship between homocysteine level and diabetic retinopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Source Country No. of case/control DM Type Blood Exposure definition Study quality Matching/comparable*
Golbahar et al. 2008 [17] Bahrain 124/130 2 Plasma F: Hcy > 15 μmol/l; M: Hcy > 12 μmol/l 8 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 12, 13
Vaccaro et al , 1997 [8] Japan 11/14 1 Plasma ≥10 μmol/ 6 1, 2, 6, 8, 9, 13
Hofmann et al., 1998 [18] France 26/49 1 Plasma Preload > 15.8 μmol/l or Postload > 31.1 μmol/l 8 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9
Hoogeveen et al., 2000 [5] Netherlands 534/91 2 serum >16 μmol/l 7 1, 2, 7, 8, 9
Buysschaert et al., 2000 [19] Belgium 38/84 1 Plasma >15 μmol/l 7 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12
Agullo-Ortuno et al., 2002 [3] Spain 18/71 1, 2 Plasma F >13.9 μmol/l, M >15.6 μmol/l 5 9, 10, 11, 12
Goldstein et al., 2004 [4] Israel 84/251 NA Plasma >15 μmol/l 7 1, 6, 14
de Luis et al., 2005 [20] Spain 22/133 2 Plasma > 15 μmol/l 6 1, 6, 7, 8, 9
Satyanarayana et al., 2011 [21] US 141/159 2 Plasma > 12 μmol/l 7 1, 5, 9, 11
  1. NA: not available; DM: diabetes mellitus; F: female; M: male; Hcy: homocysteine.
  2. Study quality is evaluated by Newcastle-Ottowa Scale (1-9 stars).
  3. *The matching factors are: (1) age, (2) gender, (3) diabetes duration, (4) diabetes control, (5) hypoglycemia medication, (6) blood pressure, (7) BMI, (8) creatinine, (9) plasma cholesterol, (10) triglyceride, (11) low densitv lipoprotein, (12) high densitv lipoprotein, (13) smoking status, (14) other complications.