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Table 2 Characteristics of the studies on the comparison between the concentrations of homocysteine in the DR and NDR group

From: Relationship between homocysteine level and diabetic retinopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Source Country No. of case/control DM Type Case group/control group Blood Study quaility Matching/comparable*
Chen, 2010 [22] China 88/95 2 DR/normal or DM Plasma 6 1 2
Golbahar et al. , 2008 [17] Bahrain 124/130 2 DR/DM Plasma 8 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
Lim et al., 2012 [23] Malaysia 20/21 2 PDR/Normal Plasma 5 1, 2
Hultberg et al., 1991 [24] Sweden. 67/46 1 DR/Normal Plasma 6 1, 2, 6, 13
Chico et al., 1998 [2] Spain 71/62 1,2 DR/DM Plasma 8 1, 2, 7, 14
Smulders et al., 1999 [25] Netherlands 66/71 2 DR/DM Plasma 7 2
Stabler et al., 1999 [26] US 218/223 2 DR/DM Plasma 6 1, 2, 14
Agardh et al., 2000 [10] Sweden. 25/24 1 DR/DM Plasma 7 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7
Vaccaro et al., 2000 [9] Italy 30/34 NA DR/DM Plasma 7 1, 2, 6, 13
Chiarelli et al., 2000 [27] US 141/117 1 DR/Normal or DM Plasma 8 1, 2, 3, 5
Buysschaert et al., 2001 [28] France 24/47 1 DR/DM Plasma 5 1, 2, 5
Agullo-Ortuno et al., 2002 [3] Spain 18/71 1 DR/DM Plasma 6 9, 10, 11, 12
Yang et al., 2002 [29] China 16/58 2 DR/Normal or DM Plasma 7 1, 2, 6, 7
Abdella et al., 2002 [30] Kuwait 145/213 2 DR/DM Plasma 6 1, 3, 5, 13
Looker et al., 2003 [31] US 102/279 2 DR/DM Serum 8 2, 4, 5, 6, 13
Saeed et al., 2004 [11] UK 25/23 1 NPDR/DM Serum 7 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 13
Goldstein et al., 2004 [4] Israel 117/218 NA DR/Normal or DM Plasma 6 1, 6, 14
de Luis et al., 2005 [20] Spain 22/133 2 DR/DM Plasma 7 1, 6, 7, 8, 9
García-Unzueta et al., 2005 [32] Spain 38/117 1 DR/DM Serum 4 NA
Yücel I, 2004[33] Turkey 20/30 2 PDR/Normal Plasma 4 1, 2
Huang et al., 2006 [6] China 91/370 2 DR/Normal or DM Plasma 7 1, 2, 9, 11
Brazionis et al., 2008 [7] Australia 48/120 2 DR/DM Plasma 8 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 12, 13
Aydin E, 2008 [34] Turkey 39/35 2 DR/Normal or DM Plasma 4 1, 2
Aydemir et al., 2008 [35] Turkey 20/12 2 PDR/Normal Plasma 5 1
Nguyen et al., 2009 [36] Australia 278/743 NA DR/DM Plasma 7 1, 2, 7, 9, 10, 13
Satyanarayana et al., 2011 [21] US 150/150 2 DR/Normal or DM Plasma 7 1, 5, 9, 11
Cho, 2011 [37] Korea 67/35 2 DR/DM Plasma 6 1, 6, 7, 11, 12
  1. NA: not available; DM: diabetes mellitus; DR: diabetic retinopathy; PDR: proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
  2. Study quality is evaluated by Newcastle-Ottowa Scale (1-9 stars).
  3. *The matching factors are: (1) age, (2) gender, (3) diabetes duration, (4) diabetes control, (5) hypoglycemia medication, (6) blood pressure, (7) BMI, (8) creatinine, (9) plasma cholesterol, (10) triglyceride, (11) low densitv lipoprotein, (12) high densitv lipoprotein, (13) smoking status, (14) other complications.