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Table 3 Relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and risk of diabetic retinopathy, and the concentrations of hcy between the DR and NDR groups by subgroup analysis

From: Relationship between homocysteine level and diabetic retinopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Hyperhomocysyeinemia and risk of diabetic retinopathy Homocysteine in DR and NDR
Factor No. of studies OR 95%CI Heterogeneity No. of studies WMD 95%CI Heterogeneity
P I2(%) P I2(%)
DM type
T1D 3 1.83 1.28 to 2.62 0.21 33.6 7 2.5 1.04 to 3.97 0.00 94.0
T2D 4 1.59 0.72 to 3.51 0.19 39.7 16 2.85 1.45 to 4.25 0.00 99.2
Mixed 2 1.93 1.46 to 2.53 0.93 0.0 4 1.68 0.01 to 3.35 0.00 97.2
Site
Unitd Staes 1 1.9 1.24 to 2.93 - - 4 3.03 -0.02 to 6.08 0.00 85.0
Asia 4 2.36 1.46 to 3.81 0.15 44.3 11 3.43 2.59 to 4.28 0.00 88.6
Europe 4 1.45 0.95 to 2.20 0.57 0.0 10 1.68 0.83 to 2.52 0.00 85.0
Oceania - - - - - 2 0.68 -0.49 to 6.08 0.00 99.8
Blood
Plasma 8 2.01 1.49 to 2.72 0.20 29.0 24 2.81 2.04 to 3.57 0.00 97.3
Serum 1 1.45 0.79 to 2.67 - - 3 0.45 0.03 to 0.87 0.13 51.5
Study design
DR vs normal 3 3.71 0.94 to 14.72 0.0 90.9 11 5.21 3.50 to 6.92 0.00 99.2
DR vs DM 9 2.02 1.52 to 2.68 0.33 12.1 22 2.34 1.62 to 3.05 0.00 97.6
NPDR vs control 2 2.66 1.74 to 4.06 0.88 0.0 10 1.8 0.89 to 2.71 0.00 96.4
PDR vs control 2 2.84 1.75 to 4.61 0.98 0.0 12 4.53 3.16 to 5.90 0.00 91.6
  1. -: no data; DM: diabetes mellitus; T1D: type 1 diabetes mellitus; T2D: type 2 diabetes mellitus; DR: diabetic retinopathy; PDR: proliferative diabetic retinopathy; NPDR: nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy; hcy: homocysteinemia.