Skip to main content

Table 2 Overview of pancreatic neoplasms with their key genetic alterations and several epigenetic alterations discussed in this review

From: Surgical and molecular pathology of pancreatic neoplasms

  Average number of somatic mutations Major genes involved Methylation MiRNA tumor expression compared to normal pancreatic tissue
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma 20–80 KRAS, CDNK2A, SMAD4, TP53, MLL3, TGFBR2, ATM, ARID1A, ROBO2, KDM6A Loss of function through promotor hypermethylation: CDNK2A, hMLH1, Upregulation: miR-21, 23a, 31, 100, 143, 155, and 221
Downregulation: miR-148a, 217 and 375
Pancreatic Neuroendocrine tumor/carcinoma 16 MEN1, ATRX, DAXX, TSC2, PTEN #, Rb, TP53* Hypomethylation of LINE1 and hypermethylation of RASSF1A promoting the accumulation of β-catenin Upregulation: miR-193b, 103 and 107
Downregulation: miR-155
Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm 3 CTNNB1 u MiRNAs possibly upregulating the Wnt, Hedgehog, and Androgen receptor pathway
Acinar cell carcinoma 131 SMAD4, JAK1, BRAF, RB1, TP53, APC, ARID1A, GNAS, MLL3, PTEN Hypermethylation of RASSF1, MLH1 and APC Upregulation: miR-17, 20, 21, 92–1, 103, 107
Downregulation: miR-155
Pancreatoblastoma 18 Loss of chromosome 11p, CTNNB1 Hypermethylation of RASSF1A u
  1. u unknown. # MEN1, ATRX, DAXX, TSC2 and PTEN mutations are found in well-differentiated PanNET but not in PanNEC. * Rb and TP53 mutations are present in PanNEC, but not in well-differentiated PanNET