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Table 3 Motivational constructs from the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), sample items and psychometric properties (N = 93). (Figures above refer to the virtual microscopy condition and figures below to ordinary instruction.)

From: Traditional microscopy instruction versus process-oriented virtual microscopy instruction: a naturalistic experiment with control group

Construct Example item Number of items Cronbach
Alpha
Interest/enjoyment “I would describe this instructional intervention (W) /the microscopic demonstrations (N) as very interesting.” 7/7 (all original IMI items) 0.85
0.90
Perceived competence “I think I was pretty good at W/N.” 6/6 plus one additional item 0.84
0.90
Perceived effort “I put a lot of effort into W/N.” 5/5 (all original items) 0.82
0.86
Pressure/tension “I felt very tense while doing W/N.” 5/5 (all original IMI items) 0.74
0.83
Perceived choice “I did W/N because I had to.” (reversed) 5/7 IMI items 0.76
0.90
Value/usefulness “I think doing W/N was useful for my learning.” 7/7 IMI items plus one additional item 0.86
0.90