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Table 4 Elements of student motivation in normal instruction (figure above) and virtual microscopy (figures below) (N = 93) (Scale 1-7).

From: Traditional microscopy instruction versus process-oriented virtual microscopy instruction: a naturalistic experiment with control group

  M SD Sign
Interest/enjoyment 4.84 1.01  
  4.99 0.87 n.s.
Perceived competence 4.59 0.97  
  3.68 0.96 p < 0.001
Perceived effort 4.36 1.06  
  3.46 0.99 p < 0.001
Pressure/tension 5.42 1.05  
  4.93 1.03 p < 0.001
Perceived choice 5.25 1.17  
  5.08 0.87 n.s.
Value/usefulness 5.73 0.83  
  5.01 0.89 p < 0.001