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Table 2 Limitation of vaccines based on bacterial OMVs

From: Bacterial outer membrane vesicles, a potential vaccine candidate in interactions with host cells based

Parent bacteria Limitation Resolvent References
STEC strain (O157:H7 serotype) Efficiency restricted to O157:H7 serotype multi-antigenicity vaccines need to be explored 85
S. Enteritidis Slightly toxicity Improved stratgies to reduce endotoxin activity 87
E. coli verification of protection effects only in mice Further evaluation on other species 93
Neisseria meningitidis Short duration when immunization beyond the vaccine strain Repeat immunization and adapt other components of vaccines to OMVs 91
Neisseria meningitis the safety need to be considered because of potent immune response Vaccination with aluminum hydroxide to ensure safety 95
V. cholerae LPS endotoxicity and expensive production of OMVs Recombinant OMVs to reduce endotoxicity and advanced methods on OMVs isolation 99
  1. Abbreviations: STEC, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli; OMVs, outer membrane vesicles; S. Enteritidis, Salmonella Enteritidis; E.coli, Escherichia coli; V. cholerae, Vibrio cholerae; LPS, lipopolysaccharide;