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Table 3 Clinical and pathological summary of our case and 13 previously reported cases of epignathus with intracranial tumor. Earlier cases (1861–1963) were presented in the report by Y. Hosoda [14]

From: An autopsy case of epignathus (immature teratoma of the soft palate) with intracranial extension but without brain invasion: case report and literature review

Author year Mother Autosite Epignathus Connection Intracranial tumor
Wegelin [14] 1861 para 1 6 fetal mo., m. 8x10x6 cm. tridermal, feet with toes sella turcica & crista galli 4 cysts in the base of skull
Breslau & Rindfleisch [14] 1864 28 y-o., para 1, polyhydroamnion 23–24 fetal w., f., B.W. 1548 g fist-sized, mouth, eyes, extremities, Foetus in foetu hypophyseal area, 8–10 cm stalk tumor with extremities & umbilicus
Arnold [14] 1870 28 y-o., para 3 6 fetal mo., f., B.W. 1550 g tridermal sella turcica, 1 cm in diameter, consisted of glial tissue 5 cm in diameter, reached to right temporal scale, neuroglial
Müller [14] 1881 no information full term, 6 days survived 23 cm in length, left oral cavity, broad based, ecto- & meso-derm none Walnut-sized, right middle cranial fossa, connective tissue & capillaries
Schükry [14] 1923 no information 7 fetal mo., f., cleft palate chestnut-sized, pharynx, tridermal sella turcica, firm fibrous tissue right side of sella turcica, tridermal
Kraus [14] 1929 no information premature, f., B.L. 42 cm 37 × 30 mm, intraoral, tridermal craniopharyngeal canal, 7–8 mm in length, 4.5 mm in width 12x18x15 mm, sella turcica, tridermal
Ehrich [14] 1945 18 y-o., primipara, polyhydroamnion 5 fetal mo., still born, f., B.W. 1760 g, large head 5x8x4 cm, ecto- & meso-derm, pharynz brain tissue in sphenoid bone filling the cranial cavity, tridermal
Hosoda [14] 1963 26 y-o., gravidae iv, para 0 36 fetal w., f., B.W. 1950 g 6.5 × 3.5 × 2.0 cm, polypoid tumor hanging down from the upper lip, ecto- & meso-derm no direct connection anterior cranial fossa, 5 mm anterior to the sella turcica, spherical tumor, 4 × 3.5 × 2.8 cm, tridermal
Smith [15] 1993 30 y-o., para 3 29 fetal w., aborted., f., B.W. 1330 g 3.5 cm in diameter, oral tumor attached to the hard palate in the midline, tridermal tumor was in continuity, via a narrow defect in the hard palate, sphenoid bone, third ventricle, extending to the lateral ventricles central tumour mass separating the temporal lobes, which progected rostrally between dilated lateral ventricles, partly replacing the septum pellucidum
Smith [15] 1993 28 y-o., para 1, polyhydroamnion 18 fetal w., aborted., f. 2 cm in diameter, slightly gelatinous nodule protruding ftom the right upper lip and attached to the right maxilla, tridermal narrow cord which traversed the nasal bones and entered the cranial cavity in the region of the pituitary fossa and direct communication with the mass in the frontal lobes. partly cystic, lobular mass replacing the frontal. Predominantly neuroglial, with prominent ependymal rosettes
Johnston [10] 2007 no information 38 fetal w., m., 4 × 5 cm, midline oropharyngeal mass protruding through a cleft deformity none anterior and middle cranial fossae
Calda [17] 2010 29 y-o., primigravida 20 fetal w., aborted., f., B.W. 310 g 2 cm in diameter, lobulated round vascular mass, visible trhough the open oral cavity, tridermal none 13x10x7 mm, neuroepithelial intracranial cyst
Wang [12] 2017 31 y-o., primagravida 17 fetal w., aborted, m., 355 g 6.7 × 6.5 × 5.0 cm, protruding from the right maxillofacial region, tridermal directly growing upward middle and posterior cranial fossa, 3.5 cm in diameter, tridermal
Our case 2018 32 y-o., 3 gravida para 2 27 fetal w., stillborn, f., 1228 g 12x6x6 cm, 270 g, solid and multicystic tumor, based on the soft palate and protruding from mouth the right side of the sella turcica, 2 mm in diameter middle cranial fossa, capsuled tumor, 24 g, no direct invasion to the brain