- Case Report
- Open Access
Dropped head syndrome due to myogenic atrophy --- a case report of surgical treatment
© Zenmyo et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Received: 1 December 2010
Accepted: 19 January 2011
Published: 19 January 2011
We report a case of a 69-year-old man with dropped head syndrome associated with isolated neck extensor myopathy (INEM). Over a period of 2 years, he exhibited progressive inability to lift his chin off his chest, resulting in the dropped head position that impaired his activities of daily living. He had a disturbed gait with severe imbalance of spinal alignment. Computed tomography revealed osseous contracture of cervical vertebral bodies in flexed position. Anterior combined posterior reconstruction surgery yielded a successful outcome in his activities of daily living, including his walking balance of spinal alignment. Pathologic study confirmed myogenic atrophy in the cervical extensor muscles. We suggest that consideration for surgical management should be given to dropped head syndrome especially due to INEM.
Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is characterized by severe paravertebral extensor muscle weakness, resulting in chin-on-chest deformity . Various conditions associated with DHS have been reported, including neuromuscular diseases, e.g. myasthenia gravis, motor neuron disease, congenital myopathy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and mitochondriopathy . Some of these conditions that present with DHS are progressive and systemic, and have a grave prognosis, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis . Others have a benign clinical course without generalized neuromuscular disorder, and are diagnosed as isolated neck extensor myopathy (INEM).
The indications for surgical treatment of INEM are controversial, since these conditions have only rarely been described . We report here a case of DHS due to INEM that was successfully treated surgically, with a review of the literature.
Anterior release of vertebral column through C3-6 was performed as the first stage of surgery. Correction of kyphotic deformity was partially achieved using a Halo vest fixator. No neurological deterioration was observed during this procedure. Two weeks after the first stage of surgery, posterior correction and fusion with spinal instrumentation (Mountainer: Depuy Spine Co. Ltd., USA) and anterior bone grafting from C3 to C6, using a free fibula but without the usage of plating, were performed. Finally, cervical kyphotic deformity was corrected from 56° to 14°. After fixation using cervical brace for 3 months, solid bone fusion was confirmed using CT scan.
While some cases of DHS are progressive and systemic, with a grave prognosis, others present with INEM in the absence of generalized neuromuscular disorder and have a benign clinical course .
One possible cause of INEM in the present case is mitochondrial disease . However, it has been reported that the paraspinal cervical muscles develop pathological abnormalities with increasing age and that both ragged-red fibers and accumulation of mitochondria are frequent findings in aging cervical muscles . Myasthenia gravis (MG) must be considered as another possible cause of INEM. The clinical history of patients affected by MG is usually characterized by weakness and fatigability of muscles on repeated activity that improve after rest. They usually present not only difficulties of holding their heads upright, but also weakness of legs and ptosis, diplopia and slurring of speech. However, D'Amelio et al. recently described an unusual case of MG, presenting the isolated weakness of neck extensor muscles . A Tensilon test or edrophonium test is essential for the diagnosis of MG, however, the present case was not examined with these tests since the clinical feature was not typical for MG.
Since the number of reported cases is small, it is still controversial whether surgical treatment is indicated for drooped head syndrome. One case of failure after surgical treatment with posterior correction and fusion without anterior reconstruction has been reported . The authors mentioned the risk of implant pullout and failure to achieve adequate fixation of instrumentation in elderly patients due to osteoporosis. As reported here, we recommend anterior bone grafting combined with fusion with posterior instrumentation for DHS. For patients with anterior and posterior fibrous contractures, anterior release combined with posterior release is necessary. Two staged surgery was safe to observe not only neurological deterioration after correction but also activities of daily life in new position. Posterior instrumentation of pedicle screws and lateral mass screws was necessary to get final correction after posterior release of contracted facet joints.
We have reported here a rare case of DHS due to INEM. Anterior combined posterior reconstruction surgery yielded a successful outcome. Pathologic study revealed myogenic atrophy in the cervical extensor muscles, though the pathogenesis of this case remains unclear.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
This research was supported by KAKENHI-20591787(KI).
- Suarez GA, Kelly JJ: The dropped head syndrome. Neurology. 1992, 42: 1625-1627.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gdynia HJ, Sperfeld AD, Unrath A, Ludolph AC, Sabolek M, Storch A, Kassubek J: Histopathological analysis of skeletal muscle in patients with Parkinson's disease and 'dropped head'/'bent spine' syndrome. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009, 15: 633-639. 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2009.06.003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yoshiyama Y, Takama J, Hattori T: The drop head sign in Parkinsonism. J Neurol Sci. 1999, 167: 22-25. 10.1016/S0022-510X(99)00129-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kawaguchi A, Miyamoto K, Sakaguchi Y, Nishimoto H, Kodama H, Ohara A, Hosoe H, Shimizu K: Dropped head syndrome associated with cervical spondylotic meylopathy. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2004, 17: 531-534. 10.1097/01.bsd.0000123423.12852.bb.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oyama G, Hayashi A, Mizuno Y, Hattori N: Mechanisum and treatment of dropped head syndrome associatied with parkinsonism. Parkinsonism and Related Disordrs. 2009, 15: 181-186. 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2008.04.040.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Finsterer J: Dropped head syndrome in mitochondriopathy. Eur Spine J. 2004, 13: 652-656. 10.1007/s00586-003-0630-z.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wharton SB, Chan KK, Pickard DJ, Anderson JR: Paravertebral muscles in disease of cervical spine. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1996, 61: 461-465. 10.1136/jnnp.61.5.461.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- D'Amelio M, Benedetto NDi, Ragonese P, Daniele O, Brighhina F, Fierro B, Savettieri G: Dropped head as an unusual presenting sign of myasthenia gravis. Neurol Sci. 2007, 28: 104-106.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Petheram TG, Hourigan PG, Emran IM, Weatherley CR: Dropped head syndrome. Spine. 2008, 33: 47-51. 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31815e38ec.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.