Unusual combined thymic mucoepidermoid carcinoma and thymoma: a case report and review of literature
© WU et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 11 December 2013
Accepted: 31 December 2013
Published: 20 January 2014
In rare condition, combined thymic epithelial tumors showing either type A or type B thymomas areas combined with thymic carcinoma components may occur in thymus. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the thymus is rare in thymic carcinoma, and so far there is no report to describe a combined epithelial tumor of thymus with MEC component. We report an unusual case of combined thymic MEC/type B2 thymoma in a middle-aged male occurring in a mass of anterior mediastinum. Case report: A 51-year-old Chinese male patient presented with a 6-month history of right ptosis and progressive muscle weakness. Computed tomography (CT) examination revealed a solitary, well-circumscribed mass was in the anterior mediastinum with mild heterogeneous enhancement. Histologically, the mass contained two separated components and displayed typically histological features of low-grade MEC and type B2 thymoma, respectively. There was no gradual transition of these two components observed in mass, and no enlarged lymph node was found in the surrounding tissues. A diagnosis of combined thymic MEC/type B2 thymoma was made. The patient received thymectomy to resect the mass totally. After surgery, chemotherapy with regiments of cisplatin and mitomycin, and radiotherapy of the main tumor bed were performed on the patient. There was no evidence of tumor recurrence during the period of 12 months follow-up.
To our best knowledge, this is the first report of combined thymic epithelial tumor with MEC component. Although this tumor is rare, the diagnosis of a thymic MEC should be taken into consideration when a combined epithelial tumor is occasionally encountered in thymus.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/9721397571157894
Primary thymic carcinoma is a rare tumor of the anterior mediastinum. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the thymus is rare in thymic caircinoma, and comprises approximately 2% of published thymic carcinoma [1, 2]. Up to date, no more than 30 cases of thymic MEC have been described in the literature [3–15]. In rare condition, combined thymic epithelial tumors showing either type A or type B thymomas areas combined with thymic carcinoma components may occur primarily in thymus, and are exceptionally rare (<1%) . Among the combined thymic epithelial tumors, over 80% of tumors have typical B2 and B3 differentiation. The carcinoma component in the most case is a squamous cell carcinoma. Lymphoepithelioma-like, sarcomatoid/anaplastic or undifferentiated carcinomas are uncommon. However, to our knowledge, so far there is no report to describe a coexistence of thymoma and primary MEC within the same mediastinal tumor in English literatures. Herein we report a middle-aged male patient with MEC combined with type B2 thymoma in the same nodule of anterior mediastinum. Histopathological findings and imaging features, as well as outcome and differential diagnosis are to be discussed.
Patient and clinical management
The postoperative phase was uneventful and the dysarthria resolved. After diagnosis, the patient was started on pyridostigmine with a remarkable improvement in weakness, diplopia and ptosis. Chemotherapy with regiments of cisplatin and mitomycin, and radiotherapy of the main tumor bed were performed on the patient. Since there was a possibility of tumor metastasis to another anatomical location, the patient was referred to a whole body positron emission tomography (PET)/CT study to search for the potentially secondary tumor, but no abnormality was found. The patient was on regular follow-up for 12 months after discharging from hospital. He had remained asymptomatic, and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence during the period of postoperative follow-up.
Combined thymic epithelial tumors are rare and characterized by at least two distinct areas each corresponding to one of the histological thymoma and thymic carcinoma types . The etiology of these tumors remains enigmatic. Some genetic studies suggested that combined thymic epithelial tumors could arise by dedifferentiation of thymoma/thymic carcinoma or by biphasic differentiation of a multipotential thymic epithelial precursor. However, the concept of tumor collision awaits genetic evidence . Clinically, almost all reported cases of combined thymic tumors were observed in the anterior mediastinum, and there were no differences in the clinical manifestations of combined tumors as compared to the individual component. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is by far the most common paraneoplastic manifestation. Histologically, over 80% of combined tumors have type B2 and B3 component. But rare cases of combined type AB thymoma or spindle cell (type A) thymoma with thymic carcinoma has also been described [18, 19]. The carcinoma component in the most cases is squamous cell carcinoma. Lymphoepithelioma-like, sarcomatoid/anaplastic or undifferentiated carcinomas are uncommon. In the present case, the typical MEC and type B2 thymoma could be identified in different areas of the same tumor. The patient showed a mass in anterior mediastinum with typical manifestations of myasthenia gravis. These findings were consistent with the diagnostic criteria of combined type B2 thymoma/MEC of thymus. To our best knowledge, so far there is no report to describe a coexistence of thymoma and primary MEC within thymic tumor. Our case is the first case of combined thymic epithelial tumor with MEC component.
MEC is a relatively common neoplasm of the salivary glands, which rarely arises in other sites, including esophagus, anal canal, skin of the breast, lachrymal sac, thyroid gland, or uterine cervix [20–23]. Primary thymic MEC is rare. It was first described by Snover DC and his colleagues in 1982 . Since then, no more than 30 cases have been reported in the English literature [4–15]. Despite its distinct histological morphology, the pathogenesis of MEC of thymus is still unknown. It has been suggested that thymic MECs might arise from thymic epithelium because, in some cases, a transition between tumor cells and benign cyst-lining epithelium and the finding of residual non-neoplastic thymic parenchyma within the walls of the cysts has been reported in some cases . However, pluripotent epithelial stem cells of endodermal origin have been also postulated in the pathogenesis of MEC of the thymus by some authors . A strong association between MEC and t (11; 19) (q21; p13) has been observed in non-thymic anatomical sites [24, 25]. Recent study has demonstrated that MAML2 rearrangement, a member of the Master Mind Like gene family on chromosome 11q21, is harbored specifically in thymic MEC similar to MEC in other anatomical sites, suggesting thymic MEC is not only histologically but also biologically related to non-thymic cases of MEC . It is necessary for the further study to clarify if MAML2 rearrangement presents in the rare MEC component of combined thymic epithelial tumors.
The establishment of a preoperative diagnosis of thymic MEC is difficult because of the rarity of this tumor and the fact that there are no specific landmarks in the radiologic examinations. Therefore, percutaneous biopsy is needed for this tumor to obtain a definite diagnosis preoperatively . In the current study, a CT guided fine needle biopsy of the anterior mediastinal mass was performed. However, only type B2 thymoma was observed in the biopsy because it was difficult for pathologists to provide a precise diagnosis from a few very small tumor tissues in rare combined thymic tumor. Under these extremely rare conditions, sufficient tissue from different parts of the lesion and thoroughly histological inspection are necessary for accurate diagnosis. Even if a diagnosis of thymic MEC is confirmed by biopsy examination, the possibility of a metastasis from primary MEC occurring in common sites should also be excluded. Thoroughly body examination and a whole body PET/CT study are useful to find the potentially primary tumor. In our case, no primary tumor of MEC was found by whole body PET/CT study.
Histologically, MEC in thymus and other anatomical sites are characterized by squamoid (epidermoid), mucin-producing and cells of intermediate type with varying proportion and architectural configuration in and between tumors . The presence of mucin-producing cells in the tumor is the key diagnostic clue for MEC. However, the presence of mucinous differentiation in a thymic neoplasm is not uncommon. Mucinous epithelium can be occasionally noted in the normal human thymus and in thymomas . It more frequently occurs in the thymus of dogs and other animals, and reflects the potential of the thymic epithelium to differentiate along multiple cell lines . Thus, thymic MEC might be confused by thymomas with mucinous differentiation. However, the latter lacks the intermediate type cells and invasive nests of epidermoid cells with desmoplastic stroma. Thymic MEC is sometimes misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma of thymus as the tumor presents predominantly nests of invasive epidermoid cells with inconspicuous mucin-producing cells component. Since the MEC is rare in thymus, these morphological features might be erroneously interpreted squamous cell carcinoma by those who were not familiar with this condition. However, mucin-producing cell is absent in the squamous cell carcinoma, which can be demonstrated in majority of tumor by Alcian blue and diastase-PAS staining. Sufficient tissue from different parts of the tumor and thorough inspection to find the mucin-producing cells will facilitate the precise diagnosis of MEC. More importantly, thymic squamous cell carcinomas are immunoreactive to CD5, which are quite useful to distinguish it from thymic MEC and other non-thymic origin squamous cell carcinoma. Like most of reported cases, the MEC component of our case also presented the immunohistochemical negativity to CD5, supporting the diagnosis of MEC rather than squamous cell carcinoma. However, only one previously reported case of thymic MEC showed tumor cells were positive to CD5 . It is not clear whether this immunoreaction represents a specifically diagnostic marker or an aberrant expression. More cases of primary thymic MEC should be needed to confirm this immunophenotype. In addition, multilocular cystic structures may be frequently observed in thymic MEC, the differential diagnosis of cystic masses in anterior mediastinum, even rare ectopic pancreatic pseudocyst, should be included .
Available data on combined thymic epithelial tumors suggest that the most aggressive component of tumor determines the clinical outcome. As to thymic MEC, high-grade tumors have been demonstrated more invasive and shown stronger tendency for metastasis compared with low-grade tumors [18, 19]. Among the cases reported with known pathological grades and clinical courses, mortality was limited to the high-grade type of MEC. In the present case, the MEC component was low-grade type according to the WHO grading criteria because the tumor lacked the histological features of neural invasion, cystic formation, necrosis and active mitotic figures . Type B2 thymoma is a tumor of moderate malignancy with invasiveness and recurrence, even after complete resection. Recent study has demonstrated that the overexpression of c-Jun, p73 and Caspase-9 in thymic epithelial tumors is closely related with the pathogenesis and biological behavior of the neoplasms . To date, there are no established therapeutic regimens for thymic MEC because of the rarity of this tumor. The published experience with chemotherapy for MEC has been limited, but the tumors have been suggested to be chemosensitive . Most regimens for thymic carcinoma are similar to those for thymoma and include cisplatin [31, 32]. Significant beneficial effect of cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy for inoperable thymic carcinomas has been suggested in several studies [31–33]. In the present case, there was no evidence of tumor recurrence during the period of postoperative follow-up. We presume that low-grade of tumor and chemotherapy with cisplatin regimen might be associated with favorable results. Of course, a longer follow-up period and laboratory examinations are needed to inspect the long term prognosis of our patient.
In summary, we herein first reported a rare case of combined thymic MEC/thymoma in an anterior mediastinal mass. The mass contained two separated components and displayed typically histological features of low-grade MEC and type B2 thymoma, respectively. The precise mechanism of coexistence of MEC and thymoma in the same nodule remains unknown, and longer period of follow-up and more case investigation are necessary to better clarify the biological characteristics and clinical outcomes of this unusual tumor. Although this tumor is rare, the diagnosis of a thymic MEC should be taken into consideration when a combined epithelial tumor is occasionally encountered in thymus.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
- Suster S, Rosai J: Thymic carcinoma. A clinicopathologic study of 60 cases. Cancer. 1991, 67: 1025-1032. 10.1002/1097-0142(19910215)67:4<1025::AID-CNCR2820670427>3.0.CO;2-F.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hartmann CA, Roth C, Minck C, Niedobitek G: Thymic carcinoma. Report of five cases and review of the literature. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1990, 116: 69-82. 10.1007/BF01612643.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Snover DC, Levine GD, Rosai J: Thymic carcinoma. Five distinctive histological variants. Am J Surg Pathol. 1982, 6: 451-470. 10.1097/00000478-198207000-00007.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tanaka M, Shimokawa R, Matsubara O, Aoki N, Kamiyama R, Kasuga T, Hatakeyama S: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thymic region. Acta Pathol Jpn. 1982, 32: 703-712.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tanaka T, Morishita Y, Mori Y, Shimonaka E: Fine needle aspiration cytology of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thymus. Cytopathology. 1990, 1: 49-53. 10.1111/j.1365-2303.1990.tb00326.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brightman I, Morgan JA, Kunze WP, Sheppard MN: Primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thymus-a rare cause of mediastinal tumour. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992, 40: 90-91. 10.1055/s-2007-1020120.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Moran CA, Suster S: Primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the pleura. A clinicopathologic study of two cases. Am J Clin Pathol. 2003, 120: 381-385. 10.1309/91C02GARN2U5GGNE.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stefanou D, Goussia AC, Arkoumani E, Metafratzi ZM, Syminelakis S, Arkoumani E, Agnantis NJ: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thymus: a case presentation and a literature review. Pathol Res Pract. 2004, 200: 567-573. 10.1016/j.prp.2004.03.008.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim GD, Kim HW, Oh JT, Jo HJ, Juhng SK: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thymus: a case report. J Korean Med Sci. 2004, 19: 601-603. 10.3346/jkms.2004.19.4.601.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nonaka D, Klimstra D, Rosai J: Thymic mucoepidermoid carcinomas: a clinicopathologic study of 10 cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004, 28: 1526-1531. 10.1097/01.pas.0000137999.23780.2a.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yasuda M, Yasukawa T, Ozaki D, Yusa T: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thymus. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006, 54: 23-26. 10.1007/BF02743780.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Noda T, Higashiyama M, Oda K, Higaki N, Takami K, Okami J, Kodama K, Kuriyama K, Tsukamoto Y, Kobayashi H: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thymus treated by multimodality therapy: a case report. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006, 12: 273-278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fuse ET, Kamimura M, Takeda Y, Kawaishi M, Kimura S, Niino H, Saito K, Kobayashi N, Kudo K: Response of a thymic mucoepidermoid carcinoma to combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and irinotecan: a case report. Lung Cancer. 2008, 59: 403-406. 10.1016/j.lungcan.2007.07.003.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kapila K, Pathan SK, Amir T, Joneja M, Hebbar S, Al-Ayadhy B: Mucoepidermoid thymic carcinoma: a challenging mediastinal aspirate. Diagn Cytopathol. 2009, 37: 433-436. 10.1002/dc.21037.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Roden AC, Erickson-Johnson MR, Yi ES, García JJ: Analysis of MAML2 rearrangement in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thymus. Hum Pathol. 2013, 44: 2799-2805. 10.1016/j.humpath.2013.07.031.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Muller-Hermelink HK, Strobel P, Zettl A, Marx A: Combined thymic epithelial tumors. WHO classification of tumors of the lung, pleura, thymus and heart. Edited by: Travis WD, Brambilla E, Muller-Hermelink HK, Harris CC. 2004, Lyon: IARC Press, 196-197.Google Scholar
- Goode RK, El-Naggar AK: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma. WHO classification of head and neck tumors. Edited by: Barnes L, Eveson JW, Reichart P, Sidransky D. 2005, Lyon: IARC Press, 219-220.Google Scholar
- Suster S, Moran CA: Primary thymic epithelial neoplasms showing combined features of thymoma and thymic carcinoma. A clinicopathologic study of 22 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 1996, 20: 1469-1480. 10.1097/00000478-199612000-00006.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen G, Marx A, Chen WH, Yong J, Puppe B, Stroebel P, Mueller-Hermelink HK: New WHO histologic classification predicts prognosis of thymic epithelial tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 200 thymoma cases from China. Cancer. 2002, 95: 420-429. 10.1002/cncr.10665.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen S, Chen Y, Yang J, Yang W, Weng H, Li H, Liu D: Primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the esophagus. J Thorac Oncol. 2011, 6: 1426-1431. 10.1097/JTO.0b013e31821cfb96.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kondo R, Hanamura N, Kobayashi M, Seki T, Adachi W, Ishii K: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal: an immunohistochemical study. J Gastroenterol. 2001, 36: 508-514. 10.1007/s005350170077.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Turk E, Karagulle E, Erinanc OH, Soy EA, Moray G: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the breast. Breast J. 2013, 19: 206-208. 10.1111/tbj.12080.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Thelmo WL, Nicastri AD, Fruchter R, Spring H, DiMaio T, Boyce J: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of uterine cervix stage IB. Long-term follow-up, histochemical and immunohistochemical study. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1990, 9: 316-324. 10.1097/00004347-199010000-00003.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Achcar Rde O, Nikiforova MN, Dacic S, Nicholson AG, Yousem SA: Mammalian mastermind like 2 11q21 gene rearrangement in bronchopulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2009, 40: 854-860. 10.1016/j.humpath.2008.11.007.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Clauditz TS, Gontarewicz A, Wang CJ, Münscher A, Laban S, Tsourlakis MC, Knecht R, Sauter G, Wilczak W: 11q21 rearrangement is a frequent and highly specific genetic alteration in mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Diagn Mol Pathol. 2012, 21: 134-137. 10.1097/PDM.0b013e318255552c.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wick MR, Marx A, Muller-Hermelink HK, Strobel P: WHO classification of tumors of the lung, pleura, thymus and heart. Edited by: Travis WD, Brambilla E, Muller-Hermelink HK, Harris CC. 2004, Lyon: IARC Press, 176.Google Scholar
- Henry K: Mucin secretion and striated muscle in the human thymus. Lancet. 1966, 1: 183-185.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rokach A, Izbicki G, Deeb M, Bogot N, Arish N, Hadas-Halperen I, Azulai H, Bohadana A, Golomb E: Ectopic pancreatic pseudocyst and cyst presenting as a cervical and mediastinal mass-case report and review of the literature. Diagn Pathol. 2013, 8: 176-10.1186/1746-1596-8-176.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ma Y, Li Q, Cui W, Miao N, Liu X, Zhang W, Zhang C, Wang J: Expression of c-Jun, p73, Casp9, and N-ras in thymic epithelial tumors: relationship with the current WHO classification systems. Diagn Pathol. 2012, 7: 120-10.1186/1746-1596-7-120.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ogawa K, Toita T, Uno T, Fuwa N, Kakinohana Y, Kamata M, Koja K, Kinjo T, Adachi G, Murayama S: Treatment and prognosis of thymic carcinoma: a retrospective analysis of 40 cases. Cancer. 2002, 94: 3115-3119. 10.1002/cncr.10588.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Weide LG, Ulbright TM, Loehrer PJ, Williams SD: Thymic carcinoma. A distinct clinical entity responsive to chemotherapy. Cancer. 1993, 71: 1219-1223. 10.1002/1097-0142(19930215)71:4<1219::AID-CNCR2820710408>3.0.CO;2-B.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Koizumi T, Takabayashi Y, Yamagishi S, Tsushima K, Takamizawa A, Tsukadaira A, Yamamoto H, Yamazaki Y, Yamaguchi S, Fujimoto K, Kubo K, Hirose Y, Hirayama J, Saegusa H: Chemotherapy for advanced thymic carcinoma: clinical response to cisplatin, doxorubicin, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide (ADOC chemotherapy). Am J Clin Oncol. 2002, 25: 266-268. 10.1097/00000421-200206000-00012.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nakamura Y, Kunitoh H, Kubota K, Sekine I, Shinkai T, Tamura T, Kodama T, Sumi M, Kohno S, Saijo N: Platinum-based chemotherapy with or without thoracic radiation therapy in patients with unresectable thymic carcinoma. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2000, 30: 385-288. 10.1093/jjco/hyd108.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.