Malignant neuroendocrine tumour of the appendix in childhood with loco-regional lymph node invasion
© Lyons et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015
Received: 7 December 2014
Accepted: 28 April 2015
Published: 29 May 2015
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1006600359152743
KeywordsNeuroendocrine tumours Childhood Metastatic Lymph node
Malignant neuroendocrine tumour of the appendix is a rare finding in the paediatric population. Metastases to the loco-regional lymph nodes at time of diagnosis are very rare. The literature reviewing the treatment and follow up of such cases is not definitive regarding best practice and management guidelines vary due to the complexity and rarity of these tumours.
A twelve year old girl presented acutely to the emergency department, with a two day history of right iliac fossa pain associated with nausea and vomiting. No fevers or rigors were reported. The patient denied urinary symptoms and was pre-menstrual. She had a background of recurrent presentations to the emergency department with non specific abdominal pain in the preceding months. This girl had also been investigated by the paediatric service regarding episodes of dizziness, headaches and recurrent epistaxis. All previous investigations were normal. On this occasion, she had tenderness, localised guarding and rebound in the right iliac fossa. Her inflammatory markers were elevated, white cell count (WCC) 14.2 and a C reactive protein (CRP) of 23.4. Intravenous antibiotics were commenced and a plan for surgical intervention was made.
The patient is currently doing well and has been enrolled on a clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) surveillance programme.
Highlights the incidence of malignant neuroendocrine tumours in the literature
Number of children in series
Parkes et al. 1993 
40 children over 24 years
1.14 per million children
Pelizzo et al. 2001 
10 children over 8 years
1.14 per million children
D’Aleo et al. 2001 
1 per 100,000 children
O’Donnell et al. 2006 
3 children over 9 years
1 per 100,000 children
Boxberger et al. 2013 
237 children over 5 years
1 per 100,000 children
Up to 90% are diagnosed incidentally after laparoscopic appendicectomy . Usually there is a large female predominance . This is interesting, when one considers the recent trend in the literature looking at the conservative management of acute appendicitis in children .
The presenting features of both benign and malignant neuroendocrine tumours usually follow that of acute appendicitis as highlighted in our case. The well described carcinoid syndrome of flushing, diarrhoea and cardiac disease is rarely reported within the paediatric population as this is associated with liver or retroperitoneal metastases. It is in such cases that the 5 hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) testing is positive [1,3,5,6].
Boxberger et. al studied neuroendocrine tumours in children over a five year period. They noted that mean age of presentation was 13 yrs (4.5-19.5), the majority of those presented with signs of acute appendicitis and the diagnosis was made histologically. The location of the tumour similar to our case primarily was at the apex of the appendix (70%) with extension into the mesoappendix in 63%. Extension into the mesoappendix was more likely if the size of the primary tumour was over 15 mm.
It has been confirmed across the literature that site, size and grade are significant in predicting aggressive behaviour of tumours [1,7]. Prognosis has been found to be directly related to tumour size. Rossi et al. questioned whether or not mesoappendiceal involvement was an indicator or poor prognosis, however their study confirmed previous studies findings, that size is the main determinant of prognosis [8,9,10].
Decision on further operative treatment after histological confirmation of malignant neuroendocrine tumours is based on the size of the tumour. If the tumour is less than 2 cm appendicectomy alone is the operation of choice. A low proliferative index, an apical location of the tumour, and lack of angiolymphatic or mesoappendiceal invasion are other factors that influence surgery. A right hemicolectomy is the operation of choice if the tumour is greater than 2 cm, or if there is histological evidence of mesoappendiceal extension or location of the tumour at the base with caecal extension. However it must be noted that only 20% of resected specimens will show any residual disease.
The World Health Organisation revised the classification system for neuroendocrine tumours in 2010 and places considerable emphasis on the Ki67 proliferative index. The Ki67 index is used to subdivide the neuroendocrine tumours into G1 or G2 neoplasms. If the Ki67 index is less than 3%, these are classified as G1. A Ki67 index between 3-20% classifies the tumours as G2. G3 is represented by a Ki67 greater than 20%. Ki67% has been studied as a factor for predicting metastases or recurrence. In 2013 Yamaguchi et. al investigated Ki67 as a predictive index of tumour spread. This important study reported that a Ki67 index of 2.8% or greater gave a specificity of 86.8% of having metastases or recurrence . When assessing Ki67 as a marker for the biologic behaviour of tumours, it must be considered that Ki67 expression varies during the disease progression. This is not fully understood at present, but literature available suggests that Ki67 expression does vary and depending on the time of measurement, Ki67 can result in the WHO classification being upgraded. This has significant implications for treatment and follow up of these patients .
The presence of lymph node involvement as in our case, is rare and has been reported sporadically in 4-5% of paediatric cases [13,6]. A review of 414 cases looking at neuroendocrine tumour and metastases found that only 4.1% of the cases had metastases identified. MacGillivary et. al confirmed that tumours greater than 2 cm and mesoappendiceal invasion are associated with metastatic disease [6,14]. D’Aleo et. al suggested that a right hemicolectomy for a child with a neuroendocrine tumour of the appendix is a radical procedure as the prognosis is quite good. 5 year survival is reported between 90-100%. There is a trend towards limited resection as an alternative option to the classic right hemicolectomy, with perhaps an ileocaecal resection deemed appropriate .
No definitive follow up has been quoted in the literature. Despite the incidence of recurrent disease being low, follow up is recommended. In general terms clinical follow up, including chromogranin A (CgA) and 5 HIAA testing is recommended. No studies have assessed the sensitivity of these biologic markers to detect metastases or local recurrence [3,15,16]. The ENETS guidelines recommend that if the tumour is less than 1 cm then no specific follow up is needed. However if there is involvement of lymph nodes, long term follow up is recommended. MRI or CT is recommended in cases where the initial tumour is greater than 2 cm, local invasion or metastatic disease are present at diagnosis. MRI should be considered in the young and in females of childbearing age due to the lower radiation doses when compared to serial CT scanning. It is recommended that these high risk patients are followed up at 6 months and 12 months post operatively and annually thereafter.
Consent was obtained from the patient for publication.
- Pelizzo G, La Riccia A, Bouvier R, Chappuis JP, Franchella A. ‘Carcinoid tumours of the appendix in children’. Pediatr Surg Int. 2001;17:399–402.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Parkes SE, Muir KR, al Sheyyab M, Cameron AH, Pincott JR, Raafat F, et al. Carcinoid tumours of the appendix in children 1957-1986: incidence, treatment and outcome. Br J Surg. 1993;80(4):502–4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boxberger N, Redlich A, Boger C, Leuschner I, VonSchweinitz D, Dralle H, et al. ‘Neuroendocrine tumors of the appendix in children and adolescents. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60:65–70.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Minneci PC, Sulkowski JP, Nacion KM, Mahida JB, Copper JN, Moss RL, et al. Feasibility of Nonoperative management strategy for uncomplicated acute appendicitis in children’. J American College Surg. 2014;219(2):272–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stinner B, Rothmund M. Neuroendocrine tumours (carcinoids) of the appendix. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2005;19(5):729–35.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- MacGillivray DC, Heaton RB, Rushin JM, Creuss DF. Distant metastasis from a carcinoid tumour of the appendix less than one centimeter in size. Surgery. 1992;111:466–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Assadi M, Kubiak R, Kaiser G. Appendiceal Carcinoid tumours in children: does size matter?’. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2002;38:65–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rossi G, Valli R, Bertolini F, Sighinolfi P, Losi L, Cavazza A, et al. Does Mesoappendix infiltration predict a worse prognosis in incidental neuroendocrine tumours of the appendix? A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 15 cases. Am J Clin Pathol. 2003;120:706–11.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rutledge RH, Alexander JW. Primary appendiceal malignancies: rare but important. Surgery. 1992;111:244–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sandor A, Modlin IM. ‘A retrospective analysis of 1570 appendiceal carcinoids’. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93:422–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yamaguchi T, Fujimori T, Tomita S, Ichikawa K, Mitomi H, Ohno K, et al. Clinical validation of the gastrointestinal NET grading system: Ki67 index criteria of the WHO 2010 classification is appropriate to predict metastasis or recurrence. Diagn Pathol. 2013;8:65.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Singh S, Hallet J, Rowsell C, Law CH. ‘Variability of Ki67 labelling index in multiple neuroendocine tumors specimens over the course of the disease.’ European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 2014;14:748.Google Scholar
- O’Donnell ME, Carson J, Garstin WIH. Surgical treatment of malignant carcinoid tumours of the appendix. Int J Clin Pract. 2007;61(3):431–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Syracuse DC, Perzin KH, Price JB, Wiedel PD, Mesa Tejada R. Carcinoid tumours of the appendix: mesoappendiceal extension and nodal metastases. Ann Surg. 1979;190:58–63.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- D’Aleo C, Lazzarechi I, Ruggiero A, Riccardi R. Carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children: two case reports and review of literature. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2001;18:347–51.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pape UF, Perren A, Niederle B, Gross D, Gress T, Costa F, et al. ENETS Consensus guidelines for the management of patients with Neuroendocrine Neoplasms from the Jejuno-Ileum and the appendix including Goblet cell Carcinomas. Neuroendocrinology. 2012;95:135–56.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.