- Open Access
RETRACTED ARTICLE: HMGB1: a novel protein that induced platelets active and aggregation via Toll-like receptor-4, NF-κB and cGMP dependent mechanisms
© Yang et al. 2015
- Received: 1 June 2015
- Accepted: 9 July 2015
- Published: 6 August 2015
The Retraction Note to this article has been published in Diagnostic Pathology 2018 13:70
Thrombotic diseases are a group of prevalent and life-threatening diseases. Selective inhibition of pathological thrombosis holds the key to treat variety of thrombotic diseases. The pathological thrombosis can be induced by either tissue necrosis and deregulated inflammation. HMGB1, as an important proinflammatory cytokine and a late mediator, also involves on thrombosis disease. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood.
Immunofluorescence, ELISA assay, Platelet Aggregation, Thromboelastogram (TEG) analyzes. Flow cytometric analysis and Western blot analysis were used to investigated the role of HMGB1 in platelet aggregation and obtained following observations.
By doing so, we obtained the following observations: i) Highly purified HMGB1 recombinant protein induces platelet aggregation and secretion in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of serum. ii) Low concentration of extracellular HMGB1 could synergistically promote subthreshold concentration of collagen or thrombin induced platelet aggregation. iii) Extracellular HMGB1 promoted platelet aggregation in a platelet-expressed GPIIb/IIIa-dependent manner. iv) We proposed that extracellular HMGB1 seems to promote the phosphorylation of GPIIb/IIIa and subsequent platelet aggregation via TLR4/NF-κB and cGMP pathway.
In this study, we provide evidence for the hypothesis that HMGB1 interact with platelet might play an important role in the haemostasis and thrombotic diseases. Our research might be provide an interesting avenue for the treatment of thrombotic diseases in the future.
- Platelet aggregation
Evidence from basic and clinical medicine had clearly proven that there were complex interactions between inflammation and thrombosis. The pathogenesis of thrombosis remains complicated. Inflammation increases immune cells or endothelial cell release of procoagulant factors, such as cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules were released, tissue factor expression, platelet and endothelial activation , however, inflammation not only leads to activation of coagulation, and vice versa coagulation also considerably affects inflammatory activity and even augments inflammation, at present, the commonly accepted notion that inflammation and hemastasis are coupled by common activation pathway and feedback regulation system [2, 3], generally speaking, inflammation including sterile and infection- associated inflammation states, but the common features of the two in the process of inflammation are accompanied by cells necrotic and and immune cell activation .
High mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB1) was originally discovered as a chromatin-binding protein that could bend DNA. Such bending stabilizes nucleosome formation and regulates the expression of select genes upon recruitment by DNA binding proteins [4, 5]. Then, researchers discovered that extracellular HMGB1 can be released from necrotic cells, apoptotic cells or multiple immunocompetent cells and displayed a broad spectrum of biological activities [6, 7], importantly, extracellular HMGB1 play a critical role in activation of the innate immune response, by functioning as a chemokine facilitating movement of immune cells to sites of infection, as well as in functioning as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP), activating other immune cells to secrete proinflammatory cytokines, thus promoting the immune response . Recently, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) identified as a crucial regulator of inflammatory mediator HMGB1 released . Present study clearly indicated that extracellular HMGB1 transmembrane signaling pathways main through Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, TLR-2, and the receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) [10, 11]. Moreover, HMGB1, as an important proinflammatory cytokine and a late mediator, also involves on thrombosis disease. A growing number of studies suggest that a potential role of HMGB1 in during thrombus development. In recent years, our study for the first time provided evidence that extracellular HMGB1, potentially through activation of transcription factors such as NF-κB, enhanced tissue factor (TF) expression and activities in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and macrophages . Moreover, another recent clinical study, doctors discoverd circulating HMGB1 has been shown to be independently associated with cardiac mortality in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction .
Here, we found that either the resting platelets cytoplasm or the supernatant of activated platelets high expression of HMGB1 protein. Platelets play a central role in thrombosis, hemostasis, and inflammation. In addition to their known role in hemostasis and thrombosis, platelets also as immune cells, that forms a bridge between inflammation and thrombosis disease, play proinflammatory and procoagulant in vivo . In addition, platelet also expression function TLR2, TLR4 and RAGE which implicated in the regulation of platelet adhesion, aggregation [15, 16]. For instance, recently reported that histone, which similar to HMGB1 protein as DAMP, could induce platelet aggregation and thrombin generation through platelet TLR2 and TLR4 . Platelet activation and aggregation is essential for normal hemostasis and also plays a important role in thrombosis. In the past, although some researchers speculated that HMGB1 protein capable of activating platelets , but the mechanism was previously unclear. For the first time, we provided evidence that HMGB1 could direct induced platelets aggregation and secretion, moreover, extracellular HMGB1 could significantly promote other agonists-induced platelets aggregation. Furthermore, extracellular HMGB1 interact with platelets mainly depended on TLR4/NF-κB and cGMP-dependent pathway. Taken together, our experimental data suggest that HMGB1 protein this potent procoagulant function may contribute to pathogenesis of thrombosis.
Recominant HMGB1 (rHMGB1) protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to homogeneity as described previously . Purified HMGB1 was tested for endotoxin content by the chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay (Endochrome, Charles River, Wilmington, MA, USA), and contained < 500 pg endotoxin per microgram of rHMGB1. Blocking mAbs against human TLR2 (clone T2.5), TLR4 (HTA125), and isotype control (IgG2a, from eBioscience); mouse anti-human RAGE (R&D Systems, Catalog Number: MAB11451; 20 μg/ml), PE/FITC/Percp labeled anti-human IgG1, FITC-labeled anti-human PAC-1, PE-labeled anti-human CD62P, Percp-labeled anti-human CD61, FITC-anti-human labeled CD42b, PE-labeled anti-human CD41 (all from BD, USA), collagen (T-7009,100UN) and thrombin (Sigma), Ristocetin (Absin China), Rabbit polyclonal anti-HMGB1 antibodies (R&D Systems), human HMGB1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit was purchased from Shino-Test Corporation (Tokyo, Japan). Proteinase K (500 μg/ml Sigma-Aldrich). Sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 100 μM, Sigma, USA).
Patients and samples
Blood samples were obtained from five healthy donors and the patient with Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) is a 40-year-old woman, the detailed data about laboratory molecular biological diagnostic had published in Blood , the institutional ethics committee of the third Xiangya hospital of central south university approved this study, all patients and healthy donors gave their informed consent in accordance with the declaration of Helsinki. Blood sampling, PRP preparation and platelet isolation, all peripheral venous blood was collected from patients or healthy human volunteers by puncture with a 19-gauge needle, Storage tube contain 3.8 % trisodium citrate (9:1 blood-to-citrate ratio, BD Vacutainer™ tubes). PRP preparation and platelet isolation processed as described previously . PRP was centrifuged at 1000 rpm for 10 min at at room temperature (RT) in the presence of 1 μg ml-1 PGE1 (Sigma-Aldrich) and next 3000 rpm for 10 min then washed in washing buffer (140 mM NaCl, 10 mM NaHCO3, 2.5 mM KCl, 0.5 Mm Na2 HPO4, 1 mM MgCl2, 22 mM sodium citrate, 0.55 mM glucose, 0.35 % BSA, pH6.5). Finally, washed human platelets (WPs) were resuspended in Tyrode’s buffer (Tyrode buffer composition was 10 mmol/L of HEPES pH7.5, 140 mmol/L of NaCl, 2.7 mmol/L of KCl, 0.2 mmol/L of Na2HPO4, 12 mmol/L of NaHCO3, 5.5 mmol/L of D-glucose, and 1 mmol/L of MgCl2).
WPs were resuspended in Tyrode’s buffer, then platelets of two groups were fixed with 1 % paraformaldehyde and cytospined after by adding thrombin, the processed platelets incubated overnight with rabbit polyclonal anti-HMGB1 antibodies and Rabbit polyclonal anti-actin antibodies. The washed platelets were incubated for 1.5 h at RT with the secondary Ab Alexa Fluor 488 or 568 (Molecular Probes) at a dilution of 1:500 followed by 3 washes in PBS. Images of platelets were visualized by fluorescent microscopy (Nikon), shutter and image acquisition were controlled by MetaMorph software (MDS Analytical Technologies).
The addition or not addition of thrombin (0.2 U/ml) to WPs, respectively measured protein of HMGB1 in the supernatant and pellet after platelet activation, the rest platelet as control. HMGB1 plasma concentrations were measured using the HMGB1 ELISA Kit II according to the manufacturer’s protocols. The lower limit of quantification for the assay was 0.2 ng/mL for HMGB1. Each sample was run in duplicate and the mean concentration was determined.
Aggregation of platelets were finished in 30–40 min when fresh blood from healthy volunter was collected, the method was optically monitored in a Data 4-chamber aggregometer (Chrono-Log Lumi-aggregomete) at 37 °C, magnetic stick at a constant stirring rate of 1200 rpm, PRP was centrifuged at 1000 rpm for 10 min at at RT, adjust the number of platelets (200–250 × 109/mL) in WPs, Light ray transience through WPs is 100 %, but through Tyrode’s buffer it is 0 % due to differing optical density. WPs (200 μl) was poured into glass tubes in the presence of a magnetic stick, platelet aggregation was determined by adding 50 μl of HMGB1 or other agonists, including Thrombin (0.2 unit/ml), Collagen 0.3 μg/ml, Ristocetin (RIS 1.25 mg/ml), Albumin (μg/ml) was set as negative control.
Thromboelastogram (TEG) analyzes
A whole blood kaolin-activated thromboelastogram (TEG) analyses was run in a CFMSTM thromboelastography(China), TEG experiment with CFMSTM thromboelastograp General Cup Test Kit (viscosity measuring). The basic TEG parameters include reaction time R, angle of alpha (α) and Maximum Amplitude (MA). With whole blood 2 ml from health donors storaged in tube contained 3.8 % trisodium citrate (9:1 blood-to-citrate ratio, BD Vacutainer™ tubes). take 1 ml of whole blood to the first reagent reacting vessel (contain kaolin clay) of the kit, a final concentration of 1 μg/ml HMGB1 protein were added or not added to some vessels, very slowly with sufficient mixing, waiting for 5 min, then, adding 20 μl CaCl2 (the second reagent reacting vessel) to the bottom of reaction cups, At the time the reaction was started, 320 μL of citrated whole blood was added to the cup, and the recording was initiated. All TEG analyzes were performed within one hour after sample collection.
Flow cytometric analysis
Platelets in Tyrode buffer were incubated with HMGB1 for 10 min at 37 °C and then in the presence of 2.5 mmol/L of CaCl2. Albumin (60 μg/ml) as control, next, For P-selectin and PAC-1 evaluation, platelets were diluted in HBS and fixed with adding paraformaldehyde (final concentration of 1 %) in at 37 °C for 5 min; afterward, they were washed and incubated in HBS with 1 % BSA containing FITC-labeled PAC-1 or PE-labeled CD62P or Percp-labeled CD61 for 30 min, in some experiments, platelets were pre-incubated with anti-TLR2 mAbs, anti-TLR4 mAbs, anti-human RAGE mAbs or IgG2a (50 μg/mL) for 20 min at RT; then washed again and resuspended in HBS with 1 % BSA, For analysis patients with GT, platelets were washed and incubated in HBS with 1 % BSA containing Percp-labeled CD61 or FITC-labeled CD42b or PE-labeled CD41a, PE/FITC/Percp labeled anti-human IgG1 as isotype control antibody, expression was analyzed using a FACSCalibur flow cytometer (BD Biosciences).
Measurement of platelet cGMP, cAMP levels
WPs pre-incubated with or without blocking mAbs anti-TLR2, anti-TLR4, anti-human RAGE or IgG2a mAbs (60 μg/mL) for 10 min at 37 °C respectively. HMGB1 was added to WPs that were stirred at 37 °C in a platelet aggregometer for 5 min. and the reaction stopped by addition of ice-cold 12 % (w/v) trichloroacetic acid. Samples were mixed and centrifuged at 2000 g for 15 min at 4 °C and the supernatant was extracted four times with water-saturated diethyl ether. The samples were lyophilized (≤-20 °C) and concentration determined using a cGMP, cAMP enzyme immunoassay kit from Amersham Biosciences. Results are expressed as mean ± SD.
Western blot analysis
WPs lysates (109 cells/mL) were prepared in loading buffer (62.5 mM Tris–HCl at pH 6.8, 25 % glycerol, 2 % SDS, 0.01 % bromophenol blue and 5 % 2-mercaptoethanol) in the presence of a protease inhibitor cocktail containing 1 mM AEBSF, 2 μg/ml aprotinin, 1 μg/ml leupeptin. Equal volume of platelet proteins were resolved by 12 % sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The proteins were transferred to a PVDF membrane (Millipore) by semidry transfer, Antibodies to human HMGB1mAb (R&D Systems), and Actin(Cell Signaling). Mouse anti-IκBα, rabbit anti-phospho IκBα were from Abcam (UK).
All data are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Statistical analysis was performed by the Student t-test or ANOVA as appropriate. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Resting human platelets express cytoplasmic HMGB1, activated platelet release of HMGB1
Measurement of ATP release and expression of P-selectin
During platelet activation, P-selectin is translocated from intracellular granules (α-granules) to the external membrane, it expression on platelets determines size and stability of platelet aggregates . HMGB1 inducing platelets P-selectin expression and the results suggested that HMGB1 also stimulated platelets α granule secretion (Fig. 4b, c). measured P-selectin expression level in HMGB1-incubated (1 μg/ml) WPs were 14.0 % ± 5.3 %, although P-selectin expression level had a slightly increase while the results between the two (control group, 6.4 % ± 4.8 %) had no statistical difference, higher dose of HMGB1 (10 μg/ml) produced a significant increase P-selectin-positive platelets. in a words, these results revealed that HMGB1 stimulate platelet both dense and α granule.secretion.
HMGB1-induced platelet aggregation depends on GPIIb-IIIa complex activation
HMGB1 induced platelet activation depended TLR4
HMGB1 stimulates platelet aggregation by blocking the activity of nitric oxide/cGMP signaling
NF-κB inhibitors impair HMGB1-induced platelet activation responses
Emerging evidence has suggested a potential role for extracellular role of HMGB1, which was identified as a proinflammatory cytokine and a late mediator of sepsis. Beijnum et al first discovered that extracellular HMGB1 levels were elevated in human atherosclerotic plaques, but not in normal arteries . Then, many studies demonstrated massive accumulation of HMGB1 in the systemic circulation would promote the development of DIC [21, 27] next, our research group first confirmed that HMGB1 elevated human vascular endothelial cell tissue factor expression and may be involved in the pathophysiology of atherothrombosis . Recently another a clinical validation studies showed that a pathogenic relationship between extracellular HMGB1 and thrombosis has been proposed that circulating concentration of HMGB1 on admission may be a potential and independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality .
Here, our study shows for the first time that HMGB1 induced human platelets aggregation and secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, HMGB1 stimulates platelet secretion or aggregation mainly, at least in part, via the TLR4 dependent mechanisms. As mentioned above, extracellular HMGB1 is known to interact with three cell surface receptors: TLR4, TLR2, and RAGE. Known endogenous ligands released from damaged tissues such as heat-shock proteins , histone , and extracellular matrix fragments  all interact with TLR2 or TLR4, there is also considerable emerging evidence demonstrating that TLR4, may play a critical role in inflammation and autoimmunity, are predominantly involved HMGB1-mediated activation of innate immune cells . For instance, TLR4 involved in regulation of HMGB1-induced neutrophil extracellular trap formation  or HMGB1-mediated platelet-tumour cell interaction . Meanwhile, platelet expression of Toll-like receptor that was regarded as the link between “danger” ligands and inflammation . Particularly, platelets depended express functional TLR4, which is MyD88-dependent or MyD88- independent pathways, plays a major role in platelet adhesion and promoting pro-inflammatory cytokine production . Our experimental data suggested that HMGB1 interact with platelets via TLR4 and then triggered inside-out signaling in platelets, the conclusion are supported by our data that when anti-TLR4 mAbs, anti-TLR2 mAbs and anti-RAGE mAbs are all presenting in platelets only the HMGB1-stimulated effect is suppressed by anti-TLR4.
In addition, our data suggested HMGB1 signaling were transmitted from TLR4 to GPIIb/IIIa and then triggers close cell-to-cell contact between platelets. The intricate molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of platelet aggregation are complex. Glycoprotein layer of the platelet plays a very crucial role in platelet adhesion and aggregation, the various receptor-specific platelet activation signaling pathways converge into common signaling events that stimulate platelet shape change and granule secretion and ultimately induce the “inside-out” signaling process leading to activation of GPIIb/IIIa, then it trigger “outside-in” signaling and acts as a receptor for fibrinogen, von willebrand factor, and fibronectin, resulting in platelet granule secretion, stabilization of platelet adhesion and aggregation .
Another interesting finding of this study was that the effect HMGB1 on platelet activation depended the the cGMP signaling pathway. The conclusion is supported by our data that HMGB1decrease cGMP level and the effect of platelet aggregation was abolished by cGMP analogs 8-pCPT-cGMP or cGMP-elevating NO donor SNP which inhibiting platelet activation. At present, regulation of platelets GPIIb-IIIa-integrin activation involving dependent or independent of the NO/cGMP pathway . Most of studtes confirm the concept that the NO/sGC/cGMP/PKG pathway plays excluvely inhibitory roles in platelets [25, 36], however, its effector cGMP also exerts some stimulatory effects on the early phases of activation . The exact mechanisms involved in cGMP-mediated platelet inhibition and the wiring of the cyclic nucleotide signaling network are only partly understood . cGMP production in platelets depends on a single enzyme, the soluble NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (sGC or NO-GC), a number of recent studies about cGMP with platelets have demonstrated that stimulation platelet aggregation by blocking the activity of nitric oxide/cGMP signaling or elevating cGMP in the inhibition of platelet aggregation, such as thrombospondin-1 from platelet-granules inhibits cGMP-mediated activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase induced platelet aggregation , activators of cGMP or cAMP inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation .
In conclusion, our data indicated that rHMGB1-induced platelet aggregation and secretion via TLR4 receptors, NF-kappa B, and cGMP depended activation of the GPIIb/IIIa pathway. Together, these experimental data provide evidence for the hypothesis that HMGB1 stimulated platelet activation might play an important role in the haemostasis and thrombotic diseases. This project might provide a new avenue for the treatment of thrombotic diseases via blocking HMGB1 or it’s signal passway in the future.
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